Pedagogical education has made many to toil in wasteful activities without discovering their innate potentials. This study seeks to address the problem of youths through CACT Education. CACT is an educative approach that helps to stimulate the thinking capacity of children and motivates them in reasoning. With the CACT method, everybody is an inquirer or philosopher. The main goal of CACT is to seek truth and clarity of ideas. No truth is absolute and this method of educating children in the classroom is what will help to bridge the missing link in the chain of education and that is reasonableness.


Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Approval page -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Abstract   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi


1.0      Introduction     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

1.1      Background of the study  -       -       -       -       -       1

1.2      Statement of the problems -    -       -       -       -       5

1.3      Purpose of the study -      -       -       -       -       -       6

1.4      Significance of the study -       -       -       -       -       -       6

1.5      Target audience       -       -       -       -       -       -       6

1.6      Research questions -       -       -       -       -       -       -       7

1.7      Research methodology     -       -       -       -       -       7


2.0   Review of related literature -    -       -       -       -       8

2.1      Analyzing and synthesizing critical and creative

thinking   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       8

2.2      Critical thinking depends on critical reading   -       11

2.3      Explanation of caring thinking        -       -       -       -       29


3.0   Expose of the study         -       -       -       -       -       -       45

3.1   Exposition of the Nigerian system of education – pedagogy 45


4.0   Implication of the study   -       -       -       -       -       50

4.1   Principle of CACT     -       -       -       -       -       -       50

4.2   Goals of CACT  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       51

4.3   CACT in practice      -       -       -       -       -       -       53


5.0   Summary, Conclusion, recommendations       -       -       58

5.1   Summary   -     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       58

5.2   Implication of the findings       -       -       -       -       58

5.3   Recommendation -  -       -       -       -       -       -       60

5.4   Limitation of the study     -       -       -       -       -       60

5.5   Suggestion for further studies -       -       -       -       -       60

        References -     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       61





Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking leads to self-realization; it is a way of thinking positively not negatively, also a method of thinking about thinking which is the key to thinking critically. (Marzano, Robert) et al mentioned the skills involved in critical thinking  which are the;

(a)        Honesty

(b)        Rationality

(c)         Self-awareness

(d)        Open-mindedness

(e)         Discipline

(f)          Judgement

(g)         Tolerance

(a)        Honesty – Thinking in an honesty way which is positively not negatively (D.N) (198) pp. 18-9.

(b)        Rationality: The ability to combine problems together and reason what to do not just to take non-critical thinking also finding the best explanation on evidence and ignore the ones that are not good.

(c)        Self-awareness: Thinking most have thought, conscience and the mind have been aware of what thought is in the mind, be aware of the person thought.

(d)        Open-mindedness: The mind has to be aware and opened to have positive thoughts, not non-critical thinking.

(e)        Discipline: The thinking must be well checked and well thought to understand the right thoughts and wrong ones. It will be well trained in other to achieve critical thought and creative thought.

(f)          Judgement: The mind must be checked and find different and collect good thoughts and avoid the unused ones.

(g)        Tolerance: Thinking must have self-evidence, tolerance the ones the person feels like a good thought before saying or using it to solve problems.

Creative Thinking: The ability to give the interpretation of the mind can be positive on negative. One would have thought that a more enlightened attitude towards a person would have thought that the greatest appreciation of a person’s capacity to be aware to thinks for himself and to reason about metaphysical and epistemological issues. Also, its insistence on the idiosyncratic character of a person's experience liberated that person from treatment as an underdeveloped adult at school and at home. Anih (2001) highlighted the various processes involved in CACT. They are:

a)          Observes self in the process of thinking.

b)          Monitors and corrects self in the process

c)           Can suspend thinking, judgments, and evaluations.

d)          Knows the difference between thinking, sensing, and margining and can use each selectively.

e)           Checks for errors and has standards for the communication of ideas.

f)            Asking Questions from observations.

g)           Giving reasons and distinguishing good reasons from bad ones.

h)          Co-operation/collaboration stages.

i)            Dialogue spirit requires care and commitment.

j)            Critical and creative thinking, Dialogue is also essential for the building of common purposes and understandings in terms of any kind of growth.

k)          It is an art to be thought, studied, and practiced, and as such it is not a result of a quick fix-up. 


Nigerian system of education is in shambles because of an inappropriate approach towards solving educational problems. Valuable democratic principles are not practiced in our educational system. People no longer live with the spirit of brotherhood. Youths in Nigeria want to ascertain their individuality through deviating from the social norms, engaging in examination malpractice, robbery, violence, kidnapping, wearing indecent clothes, and cultism. Many people want to become noticed, nobody wants to listen and care for his brothers’ ideas and existence. The point of inquiry is ‘if everybody is talking who critically analyzes, evaluates, and understands his neighbor?


This study seeks to look into exposing critical, creative, and caring thinking as the solution to developing Nigerian youths.


The study is important because it will help to enlighten our educational administrators and curriculum planners, parents, and teachers on the right approach in relating with young people and also on the right dimension to follow in order to solve the existing problems in the Nigerian educational system.


The study is meant for

1)          The student's teachers

2)          The teacher educators

3)          The curriculum planners

4)          The educational administrators.


1)          In what ways can we implant the spirit of caringness, belongingness, cooperation, and collaboration among students in classroom activities?

2)          How can a good teacher-student relationship be built?

3)          Can the CACT improve teacher’s effectiveness?

4)          Can the principles of CACT improve student’s effectiveness?

5)          To what extent can CACT values help to improve youth’s behavior in various schools?


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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