Background of the Study

Nigeria as a nation is faced with the challenges of a developing nation which are;

domestic and external constraints to growth among which include; lack of employment generation, policy implementation and lack of follow-up of the policy among others. To confront these challenges of the 21st century, the Nigerian government under former president Goodluck Jonathan came up with the Transformational Agenda, which is geared towards bringing Nigeria to the league of world’s 20 leading economies by the year 2020.

One of the focuses of the Transformational Agenda is investing in human resources to transform the Nigerian people into active agents for growth and national development. Human resources are one of the resources utilized in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. Human resources are the workers, in an organization. Hence as educational organizations are critical to the success of any national agenda, (Balarabe 2012), their human resources really need to be influenced and directed towards its strategic objectives. This could be attained through an effective leadership that is proactive, encourages followers to do what is required to help them attain unexpected goals. This influence could be achieved through transformational leadership style.

Leadership is the central process of an organization. Oboegbulem and Onwurah (2011) defined leadership as a process of influencing, directing, acquiring normative personal characteristics and power, and coordinating group activities to make individuals in an organization strive willingly towards the attainment of organizational goals. Ade (2003) defined leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinate in an effort to reach organizational objectives. Hoy and Miskel (2013) noted that leadership is a social process in which an individual or a group influences behaviour towards, a shared goal. Ibukun (2008) remarked that without leadership, an organization can best be described as a scene of confusion and chaos. This means that a good organizational structure alone may not solve the problem of school organization or any educational enterprise as whole.

This is why Nwankwo (2007), argues that good organizational structure requires effective leadership to achieve set objectives. Leadership influences, coordinates, energizes and directs the subordinates to achieve set objectives among others. It is a social process, which seeks ways to use the subordinates to achieve the organizational objectives. When leadership is in action, the leader succeeds in using the subordinates under him/her to achieve the organizational objectives For the purpose of this study, leadership can therefore be defined as a social process, used to influence the behaviour of subordinates in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. Leadership visualizes what needs to be achieved, and goes all the way choosing appropriate activities, skills as the case may be to achieve them. By implication, the leader persuades, influences and co-ordinates the members in the group, so that they can willingly strive with maximum energy to discharge their allocated duties and responsibilities for high level of productivity in the organization.

Leadership theories can be featured generally as being concerned with who leads (i.e. characteristics of leaders) how they lead (i.e., leader behaviours) under what circumstances they lead (i.e., situational theories, contingency theories), or who follows the leader (i.e. relational theories) Cleveland, Stockdale and Murphy,2000). Examples of all four approaches to leadership are trait approaches which is a conventional vision that great leaders possess special, traits that distinguish them from other people, behavioural approaches; which focuses on what leaders do rather than what traits they possess, contingency theories; which contend that there is not one


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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