TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF PRINCIPALS AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA
Background of the Study
Nigeria as a nation is faced with the challenges of a developing nation which are;
domestic and external constraints to growth among which include; lack of employment generation, policy implementation and lack of follow-up of the policy among others. To confront these challenges of the 21st century, the Nigerian government under former president Goodluck Jonathan came up with the Transformational Agenda, which is geared towards bringing Nigeria to the league of world’s 20 leading economies by the year 2020.
One of the focuses of the Transformational Agenda is investing in human resources to transform the Nigerian people into active agents for growth and national development. Human resources are one of the resources utilized in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. Human resources are the workers, in an organization. Hence as educational organizations are critical to the success of any national agenda, (Balarabe 2012), their human resources really need to be influenced and directed towards its strategic objectives. This could be attained through an effective leadership that is proactive, encourages followers to do what is required to help them attain unexpected goals. This influence could be achieved through transformational leadership style.
Leadership is the central process of an organization. Oboegbulem and Onwurah (2011) defined leadership as a process of influencing, directing, acquiring normative personal characteristics and power, and coordinating group activities to make individuals in an organization strive willingly towards the attainment of organizational goals. Ade (2003) defined leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinate in an effort to reach organizational objectives. Hoy and Miskel (2013) noted that leadership is a social process in which an individual or a group influences behaviour towards, a shared goal. Ibukun (2008) remarked that without leadership, an organization can best be described as a scene of confusion and chaos. This means that a good organizational structure alone may not solve the problem of school organization or any educational enterprise as whole.
This is why Nwankwo (2007), argues that good organizational structure requires effective leadership to achieve set objectives. Leadership influences, coordinates, energizes and directs the subordinates to achieve set objectives among others. It is a social process, which seeks ways to use the subordinates to achieve the organizational objectives. When leadership is in action, the leader succeeds in using the subordinates under him/her to achieve the organizational objectives For the purpose of this study, leadership can therefore be defined as a social process, used to influence the behaviour of subordinates in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. Leadership visualizes what needs to be achieved, and goes all the way choosing appropriate activities, skills as the case may be to achieve them. By implication, the leader persuades, influences and co-ordinates the members in the group, so that they can willingly strive with maximum energy to discharge their allocated duties and responsibilities for high level of productivity in the organization.
Leadership theories can be featured generally as being concerned with who leads (i.e. characteristics of leaders) how they lead (i.e., leader behaviours) under what circumstances they lead (i.e., situational theories, contingency theories), or who follows the leader (i.e. relational theories) Cleveland, Stockdale and Murphy,2000). Examples of all four approaches to leadership are trait approaches which is a conventional vision that great leaders possess special, traits that distinguish them from other people, behavioural approaches; which focuses on what leaders do rather than what traits they possess, contingency theories; which contend that there is not one.