THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING OF VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            The role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy (Rosen and Well 2009) and (Therer 2000). Most experts in educational field agreed that when information and communication technology (ICT) is properly used, it greatly improves teaching and learning and the efficiency of the individual. According to the United Nation Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO 2000). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be defined as the science dealing with the design realization evaluation used and maintenance of information processing system including hardware, software. The United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) strive to ensure all developed and developing countries have access to qualify educational facilities capable of preparing young people to play full role in modern society and to contribute meaningfully to a knowledgeable nation.

            Awake 2002 technology has revolutionized communication during the past decade. Access to people and information practically anywhere in the world has become quicker, cheaper, and easier. Most people in the world now have access to a television, even if they don’t own one. By 1995, there were 235 TV sets for every, 1, 000 people world wide, almost double the number in 1980, just a small satellite dash can enable people who live in remote areas to receive broadcast from around the world. “today, no country can ever truly cut itself off from the global media”, points out Francis Fukuyama a Professor of political economy. In internet, some 300, 000 new users get connected to the internet every week. In 1999, it was estimated that 700 million people were expected to come on line by the year 2001. “the result”, before in the history of the world have some people’s lives, products and ideas. Also in telephone, fibre-optic cables and satellite networks have slashed telephone costs. The cost of a three-minutes call from New York to London fell from $245 in 1930 to $35 cents in 1999. Wireless network have made the mobile phone as common place as the computer. By the end of 2010 there will be an estimated one billion people using mobile phones, and many of these users will be able to use their phone to access the internet.

            An explosion of technology, from cell phones to computers to televisions, technology has found its way into every corner of the world even crossing the divide between rich and poor and has become a part of life for many. The pervasiveness of technology is perhaps most apparent in the proliferation of cell phones, many of which are no longer just phones. Advanced models enable users to access the internet send and receive e-mail and text message, watch TV, listen to music, take photos, navigate by the global positioning system (GPS).

            According to the report in the Washington post newspaper, a multi-media smart phone “now has more processing power than did the North American Air defence command in 1965”. The post also states ‘there is now one cell phone for every two humans on earth, and at least 30 nations have more cell phones than people. Indeed, we are witnessing the fastest global diffusion of any technology in human history, says the paper.

            World wide, almost 60 percent of users live in developing nations, making the cell phone the first high-tech communication device to have the majority of i6ts users in those nations. Afghanistan, for example, added about 140, 000 subscribers a month in 2008 while in recent years African has seen cell phone use grown nearly 50 percent annually. But the communications revolution has its down side. Cell phones, pagers and laptop computer make people accessible almost anytime, anywhere.

            During the past decade industrialization nations, there has been a staggering amount of research and publication related to ICT. Today, nearly everyone in the industrialized nations gain access to ICT and the purchase of computers from schools used in such nations as the United States. The United States has been increasing in such a pace that is difficult to keep track of how many computer machines are now in American schools (Harper 1993 and Becker 1993) reported a comprehensive survey of the instructional users of computer in United States public and non public schools. The report suggested that over half a million computers were in American elementary and secondary schools during 1995 more than two hundred thousand students and teachers used computer on their own basic tools. In 1993 Berghiem and Chin reported that the U.S. government made it available for students to spend more time in computer education, the U.S. administration fiscal 2001, and budget more than four hundred million students were earmarked for educational technology. Just as the U.S. and Britain made computers available in the government funding, largely throughout the government funding, largely through the Local Education Authorities (LEA). Dissccher 2003 reported that the following education reform Act in 1988. The central government made available to promote the use of computer in school administration and management. Country like south Africa, Senegal, Ghana, Liberia made more efforts for cyber education so that the teacher and students can develop skills. Other country have embraced the use of ICT. In Africa today, effort have been by most government to instantiate internet connectivity and technology training program which link schools around the world in order to improve education, enhance cultural understanding and develop skilled youths needed for securing jobs in the last century. In Uganda school net” is dedicated to extending educational technology through out Uganda (Carlson and Firpo, 2001). In Senegal teachers and students are using computer extensively as information tools. These programs mentioned are supported by their government through ministry of education.

            The use of ICT has become a short term in many countries and now regarded as understanding and mastering the basic skills in ICT, as a cone of educational programmes along with reading, writing and numerically. This ICT is school based for teaching aids and encourage the students in learning language, such as mathematics, natural science, social studies, art with reference to measurement, stimulation and statistics, spread sheets, design and data base which are the various packages of ICT. This ICT as a teaching aids and method of teaching in secondary school has widened the student’s ability to think and act when handling issues that relate to computer package and statistical problem that are being evaluated and solved with the help of computer in teaching in secondary in secondary school. It is also necessary for an individual to have capability to access and apply information with the aid of computers in order to be relevant in a globalized economy.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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