CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1   Background of the Study

Physical and Health Education is a systematic instruction in sports, training, practice, gymnastics, exercises, and hygiene given as part of a school or college program. Physical and Health Education is the study, practice, and appreciation of the art and science of human movement (Hardman, 2002b). Physical and Health Education is course in the curricula that utilizes the learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting (Kirui, 2007). In this study, it refers to an instructional program built around basic motor activities, which help achieve the goal of physical, emotional and mental wellbeing for every pupil, student and student-teachers. It includes education in health, hygiene, first aid, personal safety, and the teaching of manipulative skills. It is an integral part of the schooling process. In schools Physical and Health Education is usually referred to by the abbreviation P.H.E.

The teacher is considered to be the major and first instrument in education. School relies upon teacher in preparing generations of students and in facing problems that hinder their ability to perform duties represented in student progress and leveraging their level. There is no doubt that Physical and Health Education course carries a primary significance among the entire student body with all their differences, status and experience. Thus, teacher is the corner stone in learning and teaching, and the most important factor in education process. This requires the availability of an effective teacher who seeks to be competent and influential. His desire stems from professional commitment to provide the best education possible to his student in one hand, and to his need in facing regulatory process and situations of management in learning environment, on the other hand. Tal, et al (1993) and Kurdi (1986) cited by Abedalbasit, (2013) points out that revealing the importance magnitude of Physical and Health Education is the school's responsibility. This can be achieved through providing sufficient opportunities to sports practicing, achieving physical fitness, adopt health information and habits, and safe attitudes in order to enable a Physical and Health Education program that helps in stabilizing their emotions and assure themselves through several activities.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

With the increase of sedentary activities such as watching television, playing videogames, increased computer technology, automation and reduction of high school Physical and Health Education schedules, young people are most likely to become overweight, and less fit. Based on previous review of literature, it is very understandable that there is a lack of research in Nigeria regarding Physical and Health Education as an important subject in public schools for junior classes especially in Abuja. Lack of good health among Nigeria students in public schools is noticeable because of many reasons such as obesity, lack of self awareness of health fitness and health related issues. Based on this, the study was design to investigate the problems of teaching Physical and Health Education in Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools: An Implication for Future Generation, A Case Study of selected schools in Bwari Area council, FCT, Abuja.

1.3   Objectives of the Study

This study was undertaken majorly to investigate the problems of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary schools. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. To examine the factors that inhibits the teaching of physical and health education in junior secondary schools.
  2. To find out if junior secondary school Physical and Health Education teachers are exposed to new technologies.
  3. To know whether or not Physical and Health Education teachers are aware of the new technologies and whether these new technologies are also available for teaching PHE in junior secondary schools.
  4. To ascertain the challenges of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary schools.
  5. To proffer recommendations to these challenges.

1.4   Research Questions

1.     What are the factors that inhibit the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools?

2.     Are junior secondary school Physical and Health Education teachers are exposed to new technologies?

3.     Are Physical and Health Education teachers are aware of the new technologies use in teaching PHE?

1.5   Research Hypotheses

Ho: There are no problems that inhibits the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools.

Hi: There are problems that inhibits the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools.

1.6   Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic or related topics and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work.

1.7   Scope/Limitations of the Study

This study on the problems of teaching physical and health education in Junior Secondary Schools will focus on selected schools in Bwari Area Council of Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria.

Limitations of study

  1. 1.        Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  2. 2.        Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8   Definition of Terms

Physical Education:  Also called physical training (PT) or gym in less progressive settings, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psycho motor domains in a play or movement exploration setting. It is the instruction in physical exercise and games, especially in schools.

Health Education: is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.

Teacher: A teacher (also called a school teacher) is a person who provides education for students

Student: A student or pupil is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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