THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN BWARI AREA COUNCIL, FCT-ABUJA) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study
Physical and Health Education is a systematic instruction in sports, training, practice, gymnastics, exercises, and hygiene given as part of a school or college program. Physical and Health Education is the study, practice, and appreciation of the art and science of human movement (Hardman, 2002b). Physical and Health Education is course in the curricula that utilizes the learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting (Kirui, 2007). In this study, it refers to an instructional program built around basic motor activities, which help achieve the goal of physical, emotional and mental wellbeing for every pupil, student and student-teachers. It includes education in health, hygiene, first aid, personal safety, and the teaching of manipulative skills. It is an integral part of the schooling process. In schools Physical and Health Education is usually referred to by the abbreviation P.H.E.
The teacher is considered to be the major and first instrument in education. School relies upon teacher in preparing generations of students and in facing problems that hinder their ability to perform duties represented in student progress and leveraging their level. There is no doubt that Physical and Health Education course carries a primary significance among the entire student body with all their differences, status and experience. Thus, teacher is the corner stone in learning and teaching, and the most important factor in education process. This requires the availability of an effective teacher who seeks to be competent and influential. His desire stems from professional commitment to provide the best education possible to his student in one hand, and to his need in facing regulatory process and situations of management in learning environment, on the other hand. Tal, et al (1993) and Kurdi (1986) cited by Abedalbasit, (2013) points out that revealing the importance magnitude of Physical and Health Education is the school's responsibility. This can be achieved through providing sufficient opportunities to sports practicing, achieving physical fitness, adopt health information and habits, and safe attitudes in order to enable a Physical and Health Education program that helps in stabilizing their emotions and assure themselves through several activities.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With the increase of sedentary activities such as watching television, playing videogames, increased computer technology, automation and reduction of high school Physical and Health Education schedules, young people are most likely to become overweight, and less fit. Based on previous review of literature, it is very understandable that there is a lack of research in Nigeria regarding Physical and Health Education as an important subject in public schools for junior classes especially in Abuja. Lack of good health among Nigeria students in public schools is noticeable because of many reasons such as obesity, lack of self awareness of health fitness and health related issues. Based on this, the study was design to investigate the problems of teaching Physical and Health Education in Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools: An Implication for Future Generation, A Case Study of selected schools in Bwari Area council, FCT, Abuja.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study was undertaken majorly to investigate the problems of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary schools. Specifically, the study intends to:
- To examine the factors that inhibits the teaching of physical and health education in junior secondary schools.
- To find out if junior secondary school Physical and Health Education teachers are exposed to new technologies.
- To know whether or not Physical and Health Education teachers are aware of the new technologies and whether these new technologies are also available for teaching PHE in junior secondary schools.
- To ascertain the challenges of teaching physical and health education in junior secondary schools.
- To proffer recommendations to these challenges.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the factors that inhibit the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools?
2. Are junior secondary school Physical and Health Education teachers are exposed to new technologies?
3. Are Physical and Health Education teachers are aware of the new technologies use in teaching PHE?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: There are no problems that inhibits the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools.
Hi: There are problems that inhibits the teaching of Physical and Health Education in junior secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic or related topics and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the Study
This study on the problems of teaching physical and health education in Junior Secondary Schools will focus on selected schools in Bwari Area Council of Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria.
Limitations of study
- 1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- 2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Physical Education: Also called physical training (PT) or gym in less progressive settings, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psycho motor domains in a play or movement exploration setting. It is the instruction in physical exercise and games, especially in schools.
Health Education: is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.
Teacher: A teacher (also called a school teacher) is a person who provides education for students
Student: A student or pupil is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.