Vocational education is as old as man. In traditional societies, there were various institutional provisions developed for passing knowledge or skill in specific trade from one generation to another. The traditional system of learning was mainly informal. It emphasize on skilled development such as  black smitting, carpentry, pottery, weaving,  tailoring, motor mechanic etc. This system of learning prepares learners for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic  and totally related specific trade occupation or vocation in other words it is education designed to develop occupational skills. In traditional African society, vocational training was based on the cultural role individuals were expected to perform. For this reasons, the men were taught the trades of their father while the women were giving training that would enable them to perform their cultural functions such as home management (Osuala, et al, 1987).

        In traditional societies, it is right to say that the aim of education was character training and job orientation. Many people have the impression that vocational education is for the drop-out of the formal education system but the National Policy on Education (2004) emphasized the development of knowledge, attitude and manipulation of skills. The policy envisaged that training occupation at the junior and senior secondary schools should basically be pre-vocational, that is, preparing students for entry into vocational skills programmes in the future. Many people have begun to appreciate the significance of vocational education. This system of education givens individuals the skills to live, learn and work as a productive citizens in a global society. The vocational education has many prospects; it can be used as a catalyst for creating employment opportunities. Thus, it is a panacea for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS). The impact of vocational education in community development cannot be overemphasized. It provides relevant training to individuals to be self-supporting and independent through one’s own labour, thereby contributing economically and socially to the development of such communities. With the current imbalance in the educational system and the resultant effects of mass unemployment of school lavers, the National Policy on Education envisages that vocational education would bail us out of the problem. Vocational education exists in various forms which includes formal, informal and non-formal education.

        The formal education is the most popular in contemporary educational practice. Instructional programmes and learning strategies take place within the four walls of the school system. It runs from the pre-primary school to the tertiary institutions. In addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programmes and aimed at serving a particular age group. It is for a specific period of time and certificate are awarded to the graduants. In the sphere of informal section, vocational education is seen as a system in which every individual acquired attitude, value, skills and knowledge from daily experiences and educative influence and resources in his or her environment from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the market place, the library and mass media. for instance through informal education, a son picks up skill from his father like farming, fishing, drumming, carving, mat weaving, cloth weaving from the mother in the home through observation, it is not systematic and not certificate oriented.

        The National Policy on Education (2004) stated that non-formal education consists of remedial, continuing vocational, aesthetic, cultural and civic education for youths and adults outside the formal school system. There is no age restriction, non-formal education is skill oriented. It is based on open apprenticeship system. Nigeria is a classical example of a country that practice the non-formal education. The period of apprenticeship varies from one vocation to another. After an appreciable period of training, the master put to test the level of skill acquired by the apprentice. The apprentice pays the master for his training services and become fully initiated into the chosen vocation. He will then establish himself in a trade or associate with his form master or another master as a join-man, he is entitled to regular wages, which is paid monthly. Regardless of the difference in the opinions among educators, education can generally be regarded as an aggregate to all the processes by which a person develop abilities, attitude and other forms of behavioural, values in the society in which he lives. In other words, education is the process that helps to develop the whole man physically, socially, morally, mentally, politically sand technologically in any environment in which he may find himself.       

        The success of a nation’s economy and community development depends on the quality of its workers. Therefore, the programmes of vocational education is designed to meet the educational and training needs of adults. It also provides the adults with attitudes that will enable them to choose, enter into and progress in any occupation of their choice. The programmes of vocational education are also designed to provide qualified and well-equipped personnel to apply scientific knowledge to the improvement and solution of environmental problems for use and convenience of man. It also provide training to impart the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians, technology and the role technology plays in the world around us (Dr. Olatunde A. Aworanti).

        Vocational education is needed by adults who have left a full-time school career, those employed and those who have been rendered unemployable due to technological changes. Vocational education is also needed by person who because of academic, social-economic background “handicaps” who cannot succeed in the formal school programme. According to Wenrich and Wenrich (1974) vocational education is the education that prepare youths and adult for employment in a specific occupation or family of occupation by providing competencies needed for such employment, vocational education prepared youths for employment in industries, commerce and other enterprises by exposing those qualified for it. It is also to provide experience for adult who are already employed and whose skills have become absolute and then, require updating their skills (Uwameiye, 1998). While its objective is to encourage the maintenance and expansion of programmes and services, which are designed to meet the occupational needs of the demands.      

        Vocational education may be full-time or part-time and it is certificate oriented. It refers to all aspect of the educational process involving the acquisition or practical skills with which to start a life of work to earn a living (Osuala, 1987). Vocational education is characterized by its more specialized nature. Its purpose is to prepare the individual for an economic role in his society. It is directed at inculcating specific skills which will enable the individual render certain specialized services of economic value (Imhabekhia, 1992). The major occupation areas of vocational education include vocational agriculture, health occupation, trade and industrial education, business and office education (Osuala, 1987).

        In Ovia South West Local Government adults are equipped with vocational education which enable them contribute to the welfare and social well-being of the society. The participants for the vocational services are between twenty three to forty five years old, who have sufficient strength, intelligence and emotional stability to work without excessive absenteeism and have a sincere desire to work. Also, the centres serve as a functional literacy centers for the adults who do not possess the first school leaving certificate. The vocational centre facilitates the cooperative relations and placement of graduates of the centres in local industries. In essence, community therefore is primarily a social group occupying a more or few defined geographical area and for one another (Anyanwe, 1987). Kidd (1978) sees development as the power of people to solve their problems, experience and resources, pestilence and starvation. We can deduce from this definition that development amounts in the optimum realization of the well being of individuals in their community. Anyanwu (1981), sees community development as the process in the life of a community by which people plan and get together for the satisfaction of their felt need. He emphasized further that community development is seen as a weapon of mobilization through which social change could be engineered through citizen’s participation. Vocational education on the other hand has been described as a training which is given in school or classroom under public supervision and control. It also refers to systematic learning experiences which are designed to fits individuals for  gainful employment in recognized occupations as semi-skilled workers or technicians or sub-professionals (Osuala, 1987).


        Nowadays, a number of factors have filled increasing demand for education and skills training. This include the increasing consciousness regarding the quality of life, changing role and life pattern, growth in technology among others. The changing role of adults and the need to encourage them to participate more meaningfully in national development has led to the establishment of a training centre. It is expected that the adults will take advantage of the situation to enlist in the programmes to better their lost. Study by Omoruyi (1998) revealed that the level of adults literacy and continuing education programme is far from being satisfactory. It is generally believed that the level of adult’s educational programme is still low throughout the country.

        It is therefore, seemingly certain that adult are yet to adequately and fully take advantage of the numerous educational programmes designed for them. Beside, not much is known abou6t the few of them who have benefited from the programme in terms of the impact that they produced on the social milieu in which they live. It will be improper to assume that vocational training offered adults in the area that have impacted significantly on the development of the beneficiaries in particular, their immediate community in general without any deliberate efforts to explore the situation. In other words, it is difficult to assume that the skill training or vocational training programmes have impacted greatly on the people and their communities without any conscious effort to systematically study the situation with a view to ascertain the state of things. It is against this background that this study was designed. Hence, the problem of this study therefore, is to investigate the impact vocational education has on community development programmes in Ovia South West Local Government Area; a case study of Iguobazuwa community.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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