1.0            In this chapter, background of the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research questions, scope of the study were discussed.

1.1            Background of the study

Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines ‘qualification’ as a special skill or type of experience or knowledge that makes someone suitable to do a particular job or activity. Hence,teachers’ qualificationskill or type of experience or knowledge he/she possess to make him or her suitable to teach. Teachers’ qualification could, therefore, mean all the skills a teacher requires to teach effectively. Such skills include formal education, experience, subject matter knowledge, pedagogy studies, duration of training. Certificate/licensing and profession development (Adeyemo, 2005).

Someone might have a teaching certificate at hand but without adequate knowledge of subject matter. This individual has no teaching qualification yet. Similarly, someone without proper knowledge of pedagogy or someone who spent few years in training Olaleye, (2011) without completing the required years does not possess teaching qualifications. Professional development and experience (Akinsolu, 2010) also count for teachers’ qualification because several studies have revealed this (Adesoji, & Olatunbosun, 2008). Qualification is one of the critical factors that drive sudents’ academic performance. Adu, & Olatundun, (2007) observed that one of the most important factors in the teaching process is the qualification of the teacher. The perspective of Adu, & Olatundun, (2007) was that teachers’ qualification can go a long way to bring about students’ higheracademic achievement.

Teachers’ profession relates to competence in instruction and management of students and materials in the classroom (Patrick, 2005). Teachers’ qualifications, therefore, might not only be the certificate someone is holding as erroneously conceived by some people. Teachers’ qualifications are more than just holding a certificate of any institution. Findings form Olaleye, (2011) in her study on “Teachers’ qualification and their impact on students’ achievement ties teachers’ qualifications to seven indicators listed below:

          Teachers’ formal education, Teacher’ education in the subject matter of teaching (in-field preparation), Teacher education in pedagogical studies, duration of the preparation period, certification and licensing status and years of experience (Olaleye, 2011).

          These indictors are central to preparation in professional development activities because they act as a compass through which to navigate this review (Akinsolu 2010). Therefore, each of them will separately discussed in detail for proper understanding of what qualification are.

With the increased demands for accountability, in line with performance standard and with the growing demand for evidence-based policymaking, students, achievement is considered an accurate measure of teacher effectiveness and has become basis for value-added teacher assessment systems (Sanders, 2000; McCaffrey, Lockwood, Koretz, Louis, & Hamilton, 2004; Sandaers & Rivers, 2006).

These notions have also found favour in regard to the effectiveness of teacher education systems. After tracing the development and reform of teacher education in terms of the major questions shaping this field of education Cochran-Smith (2011) argues that “the outcome” question is what currently motivates teacher education research and policymaking. She sets down three ways in which the outcomes of teacher education are constructed. One of them, long-term impact outcomes, refers to the relationships between teacher qualification and student learning. Teachers’ qualification encompass teachers’ scores on tests and examinations, their years of experience, the extent of their preparation in subject matter and in pedagogy, what qualifications they hold in their area of expertise, and their ongoing professional development. Student learning is taken simply as the gain scores students attain on achievement tests. Cochran-Smith (2011) went on to posit the relationship between teacher qualification and student learning as the percentage of variance in student scores accounted for by teacher qualifications when other variables are held constant or adjusted.

In many countries, teacher qualifications that are considered to be related to student learning have become targets of education reform. However, the nature of this reform is under debate. Some perceive the main problem to be the low academic and cognitive level of those who go into the teaching profession and call for policies aimed at attracting more capable candidates through shorter, less regulated alternative routes (Ballou & Podgursky 2010; Goldhaber & Brewer, 2010; United States Department of Education, 2012). Others view the problem mainly as he result of inadequate teacher preparation and call for the “professionalization” of teacher education by making it longer, upgrading it to graduate programs, and regulating it through mechanisms of licensure, certifications, and promotion aligned with standards (Darling-Hammond, 2010; Darling-Hammond, Berry, & Thorenson, 2011; Darling Hammond, Chung, &Frelow, 2012; National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, 2006).

          The impact of these different approaches on student learning have been explored in several meta-analytic studies based mainly on United States data but also drawing from the databases of other countries. In Israel too, teacher qualifications have become the target of several recent reforms, such as those announced by different teacher unions (2004), the National Task Force for the Advancement of Education (Dovrat Committee, 2005), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2005 and the Committee of the Commission for Higher Education (Ariav, Olshtain, Alon, Back, Grienfeld, & Libman, 2006). The reforms suggested thus far envision improving the candidate selection process, upgrading the disciplinary preparation of teachers, opening advanced degree Master of Education (M.Ed) or Master of Teaching (M.Teach) programs, and providing opportunities for professional development. (Greenwald, Hedges, &Laine, 2006); Harris & Sass, 2007; Darling-Hammond, 2010; Ferrini-Mundy, 2011; Wilson, Darling-Hammond, &Berry, 2011; Santiago, 2012; Wyne &Youngs, 2013; Wilson, Floden 2013) other relevant studies have drawn more on local sources of data and have been targeted at specific (country-based) policies.

          Given the relatively few studies conducted in Isreal on the impact of these recommended policies on student learning, and because of the conflicting results obtained from the many studies conducted elsewhere, the study documented in this article attempted to validate some of the assumptions at the basis of the suggested policies. More specifically, the study re-examined the extent to which advanced academic degrees, majoring in the field of teaching, years of teaching experience, and intensive participation in professional development activities all assumed to be cardinal teacher qualifications are indeed positively associated with students achievement in mathematics and science.

          Ali (2009) observes that there are statistically relationship between teacher characteristics and student academic achievement. Adeyemo (2005) notes that teacher characteristics influenced teaching and learning in classrooms. Olaleye (2011) establishes that there was relationship between teachers characteristics and pupils performance. Gravestock & Gregor-Greenleaf (2008) states that the explanations for good or poor students’ academic performance have been quite exhaustive yet controversy still exists among scholars as to what contribute singly or jointly to students’ poor performance. The teacher characteristics found to be dominant in cross-country studies are related to; qualification, experience, attitude and personality.

          Akinsolu (2010) asserts that availability of qualified teachers determined the performance of students in schools. Coonen (2007) emphasizes that teachers involved in in-service training were more effective in classrooms are compared to teachers who had not undergone training. Wirth & Perkins (2013) indicate the teacher’s attitude contributed significantly to student attention in classrooms whereas Adesoji & Olatunbosun (2008) illustrate that student attitude was related to teacher personality, Adu & Olatundun (2007) contend that teachers’ characteristics are strong determinants on students’ performance in secondary schools.

          Scholars and researchers generally are in agreement that the school variables, which include teacher administration, perform a critical role in education achievement than other variables (Patrick, 2005). The important role of the teachers in the learning is inestimable. Teachers have a lot of influence on their classroom practices. Teachers should have and apply specific abilities without which their influence may not be reflected in their students’ performance in the subject. For students to be able to make connection between what is taught in school and its application in problem solving in real life, the teacher has to be effective in his teaching. There has been no consensus on the important of specific teacher factors, leading to the common conclusion that the existing empirical evidence does not find a strong role for teachers in the determination of academic achievement. This study therefore sought to investigate the influence of teacher characteristics in influencing students’ achievement.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Poor achievement of students in their Junior School Certificate Examination. The Nigeria over the years have been blamed on teachers qualifications and their inexperience in pedagogy prowess source?

Studies have shown that teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instrument to the students has effect on students’ achievement. However, there has been no consensus on the important of specific teacher factors attributable to poor achievement of students leading to the common conclusion that the existing empirical evidence does not find a strong role for teachers in the determination of academic achievement. The teacher characteristics that are found to be dominant over cross-country studies are related to qualification, experience, attitude and personality. Similar study has not seen carried out in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Hence, the impart of this study is to investigate the correlation between teacher qualifications and students’ achievement in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.

1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main aim of the study is to investigate the effects of teachers’ qualification on student’s achievement in Junior Secondary School in Enugu North LGA. Specifically, the study intends to:

1.     Compare the mean scores of students taught by teachers with high qualification and those taught by teachers with low qualification.

2.     Determine the mean achievement scores of students taught by teachers with long time experience and short time experience.

1.4     Research Question

1.     What are the mean achievement scores of students taught by teachers with high qualification and those taught by teachers with low qualification?

2.     How does the mean achievement scores of students taught by teachers with long time experience compare with those taught by teachers with short time experience.

1.5     Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance

Ho1 :The mean achievement scores of students taught by teachers with higher qualification would not differ from those taught by teachers with low qualification

Ho2 :There is no significance difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught by teachers with long time experience and short time experience respectively

1.6     Significance of the Study

Theoretically, the findings from this study will help to open windows to the understanding of the theory of learning or psychology of learning.

Empirically, the findings from this study will be of immense benefit to teachers, students, both Federal and State Ministries of Education and Educational Institutions.

Teacher, Students Federal and States Ministries of Educationand educational instruction from Primary – Tertiary Institution.

1.7     Scope of the study

          This study is concerned with investigating teachers’ qualification and students’ achievement in junior secondary schools achievement in social studies. There is the need to verify which if qualified teachers’ helps more in teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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