Following the advent of Western Education in Nigeria through the missionary societies, primary schools, were locally managed by voluntary agencies with grant in aids from colonial government. Meanwhile conditions for the receipt of grants in and were served and these include adequate organization, aver5age daily attendance tone of the school, adequate and efficiency of teachers, suitability of building and equipment and good sanitation.

          During this time, the colonial government directly administered and managed her few government schools and with the spread of western education to various rural and urban settlement native authorities become the managers of primary education in the North. Then by (1929) there were ninety five (95) primary schools in the North managed by native authorities and give missions school managed by the missionary voluntary agency while at the same time, were sixty five government primary schools in the South managed by Colonial government and two hundred and sixty nine mission/voluntary agencies schools that were granted aid and managed by the mission. With the introduction of free education in Western region in (1955) and in eastern region into the area of primary education management, the scheme led to phenomenon increase in primary school enrolment and consequently inadequate funding and poor management device were tried to maintain the system. These include re-introduction of school fees particularly in Oredo Local Government. Phasing out of grade iii teacher training colleges and absolute closure of some unviable schools. During (1962-1968) plan period, the federal government made formative effect in salvaging the system by giving grants to regional government for primary education and with the civil war of (1967-1970) more damage particularly in terms of infrastructure in Oredo Local Government was increased by primary education and indeed the enter educational system following the public education educts of no 4 of (1970), the former Oredo Local Government took over the ownership and management of all primary and secondary schools in the state. This action was subsequently followed by other states of the federation.

          More so, with the takeover of all primary schools, the Oredo Local Government established the management bodies namely.

i.             State school management board for the management of both primary and secondary schools.

ii.            State teacher services commission for the employment and promotion of both primary and secondary school teachers.

In the North, management of primary education was by voluntary agencies and native authorities continued until the promulgation of new education law in (1963) following the report of the old man commission, in the commission report, local government education authoritative was established to replace the native authorities. The local education authorities were indeed parastatals of the ministry of education they were charged with primary schools under their jurisdiction. Thus, the management of primary education in the North was under the supervision of the ministry of education. It is also to be noted that as soon as the local government authorities was established their finance were separated from the coffers of the native authorities, their source of relevant includes:          

i.             Subvention from the native authorities

ii.            State government grant

iii.           School fee where applicable

According to UNESCO (1976) the Federal Government launched the nationwide universal primary education system, which is to be free and compulsory as from the year (1980), with the introduction of the system, the Federal Government under took to fund all the cost of primary education throughout the country. Particularly in that same year the Federal government introduced a scheme of local government reform. Consequently this brought about the local education authorities in the Northern State becoming department of local government authorities, however, this removed both the supervisory control of the ministry of education and the separate accounting system of the local government authorities. Thus with this reform a specific body was made responsible for the effective management and control of primary education in Northern State.

     According to Adesina (1992) it is assumed that local government will continue to provide manually at least for the provision of teaching materials in the main time the assumption is that the State Government will continue to pay relatively the retiring benefits of the primary school staff in (1988) the national primary education commission (NPEC) was established with Decree 31 of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, (1988) to manage the affairs of primary education. It was later scrapped by the Federal Government under the provision of Decree  2 and 3 of (1991) which rested the full responsibility of the administration of primary education in the hand of local government with the degree No. 96 of 25th August (1993) the national primary education board (SPEB) and local government education authority (LGEA) and they were once again in control (LGRA) was assigned to day to day administration of primary schools in the area of jurisdiction. While, the state primary education board (SPEB) was charged with administration of primary school in the state. The local government councils appoint education secretaries who then report directly to the SPEBS. The introduction of universal primary education (UPE) nationwide in 1976 experienced problem of underestimation of about 30% of the turn-up number of the children enrolment, acute shortage of classroom space or overcrowded classrooms, shortage of teachers and equipment this may be unconnected with the neglect and lack of maintenance as a result of present economic depression this inability of the government to effectively run primary school has made people to agitate for the return of school to the missionaries and other voluntary agencies. Also, it brought the emergence of many private primary schools tends to perform more poorly than private primary schools in Nigeria. It appears as if the private primary schools usually produce more sounds product than public primary schools.

It is estimated that about 80% of the primary schools are located in the rural areas. Schools are subsidized through additional funds contributed by communities to their local schools through parent teachers association (PTA), schools councils, and community based organization these funds are used for infrastructure construction maintenance and supply of basic equipment. The infrastructure and facility remain inadequate for coping with a system this is group[ing at a rapid pace. The school environment is therefore generally not conducive to learning resource, the annual population growth rate, estimate at 3.3% contributes to the problem of the large number of children who have to be accommodated in schools.

Durosaro (1986), Taiwo (2006), the development of primary education has always been associated with communal activities these activities which include the provision and administration which are organized government system has introduce at the federal regional, later state and local nation authority local government council levels. Taiwo records that one of the provision of the ordinance which was enacted in (1948) was the encouragement of the formation of local education authorities and local government committees. 


          The local government education authorities is to function through the local government education committee composed of the chairman of local government council, the counsellor for education and representative of the recognized teacher union in the local government area. The authority is responsible for the payment of salary, allowances and other benefit to all teaching and non teaching staff in its area of jurisdiction. With the abrogation of state local government source commission, it is at least disturbing to note the local government education authorities have been assigned all aspect of staff personal function including the power to hire and fire all categories of staff, their assessment and payment of salaries all allowance based on the scheme of service drawn up by the local government.

          According to Adewole Ayo (2005) uniformity is not a virtue, yet with the short traditional local government system in Oredo Local Government of Edo State and consequent wanted experience of the function arrives together with the fact that this is a period of partisan qualities under the present legal provision with local government authority in Oredo Local Government of Edo State and also peculiar other local government. This scheme of absolute authority  without appellant jurisdiction may do more harm than good to the future of education in the country and particularly to Oredo Local Government of Edo State at this state of its development. The structure of primary education management as provided for in decree No. 3 of 1991 needs to be drastically examined.


          This study is to determine the current level of the effect of local government administrative management on primary school in Oredo Local Government of Edo State. The essence of the overall structure provided for the above is to ensure that local government education authority is not isolated entities without supervision of coordination. Specifically, this study also determines the main function of local government right and quality in terms of administration and then stand to primary education. Finally, this study will find out if the performance roles played by local government are actually utilized or underutilized.    


          The research question will try to focus on some of the following:

i.             To what extent is the manpower skills of administrative and management of schools in Oredo Local Government Area adequate?

ii.            Does the level of utilization of both male and female teacher assist in the administrative management of public primary schools?

iii.           Does the level of utilization of both male and female teacher affect the administrative management of public schools?


          After the rationalization of local government on the management of primary education there is need to provide the basis allocation of relevance. This study is of significant to every level of local government in relation to the administrative management to primary education as it serves as a platform for taking such decision. Experience has shown that primary education need proper management  to enable them achieve set goals. This study is posed to contribute its own quota through the technocrats concerned with decision making in the area of primary education development to arrive at a more realistic of the first school system.


Local Government Area: The system of government of a town or an area by elected representative of the people who live there.

Management: The act of running and controlling achievement of a goal objective state government. A country considered as an organized political community controlled by one government i.e. the affairs and decisions of the country are under one government.

Federal: Having a system of government in which the individual states of a country have control over their affairs but are controlled by a central government for national decisions.

Performance: The act or process of performing a task, an action etc.

Administration: the activities that are done in other institution.  


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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