The purpose of this research work is to investigate the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of junior secondary students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. In this project,. The researchers tried to look at the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of Junior secondary schools students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The methodology used was the questionnaire which was administered on the respondents, the questionnaire were completed and transferred into frequencies with the use of mean statistics. Some findings were out by the researcher and conclusion made. In the end some recommendations was drawn out which, include that there is need for government to expand the existing infrastructure in the school so as to accommodate the numbers of students admitted in the junior secondary school. Teachers should be employed as soon as more students are admitted so that teaching learning process will be effective. There is need for government to realize the essence of bringing up the policy of teacher students ratio such policies should be strictly adhered to the idea of admitting students without recourse to the facilities available in inimical to teaching and learning irrespective of the universal basic education (UBE) goals.


Chapter One     

Introduction ‘

1.0    Background of the study

1.1    Statement of problem

1.2    Research questions

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significance of the study

1.5    Scope of the study

1.6    limitation of the study

1.7    Definition of terms

Chapter Two     

Review of related literature

Chapter Three


3.0    Research Design

3.1    Population

3.2    Sample and Sampling Procedure of the study

3.3    Research instrument

3.4    Administration of instrument 

3.5    Method of data analysis

Chapter Four    

Data analysis, result and discussion

Chapter Five     

5.1    Summary

5.2    Findings

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Recommendations






        For many years, educators, politicians and people in general have debated on the number of students a teacher can work effectively to ensure students adequate learning. Although most people would agree that having a few student to teacher ratio would benefit the student academically, mainly will also argue that it does not guarantee success and would cost school a great deal or more money. Prior to reviewing the research, a clarification, of terms associated with the research, a clarification of terms associated with the research context is necessary. Students achievement applies to making sure all students have the necessary skills and knowledge to function in school so that they may also succeed as adult (National Education Association, 2002). But others see a much broader, richer, picture and the state standards as something to be met on the way to the broader picture. Three areas that fit into the broader picture are academics, essential life skills and responsibility to the community. Definitions vary across the research spectrum, but for the purpose of this paper, small class size will be defined as classes with approximately 15 students, while large or regular class will be defined as classrooms with approximately 24 or more students (Harris and Plank, 2000)., the term average class size is a calculation of the total number of students in a grade level divided by the number of classroom sections in that school or school district.   

        The relationship between class size and academic performance has been a perplexing one for educators. Studies have found that the physical environment, class overcrowding and teaching methods are all variables that affect students achievement (Molnal, et al 2000). Other factors that affect students achievement are school population and class size (Gentry, 2000, and Swift, 2000). The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problems is so much that it has led to the decline in standard of education. Since the academic success of students depends largely on the school environment, it is imperative to examine the impact variables of class size and school population on the academic performance of students in secondary school. Large class size quality of teaching and instruction delivery. Overcrowded classrooms have increased the possibilities for mass failure and make students to lose interest in school. This is because large class size do not allow individual students to get attention from teachers which invariable lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance. In order to better understand the skill levels of students, it might be necessary to evaluate factors affecting their performance. These factors can include; school structure and organization, teachers quality, curriculum and teaching philosophies (Driscoill, Halcoussis and Sony, 2003). The idea that school population and class size might affect students performance is consistent with the growing literature on the relationship between public sector institutional arrangement and outcomes (Moe, 2003). The purpose of this study is to further examine the relationship of class size, school population and students academic achievement.

        The student achievement guarantee in education defines class size reduction as “reduce to class 15” class size reduction can be defined as reducing the number of students in a classroom. Classroom averages, as defined above, can be reduced by introducing more teachers. If a school has 120 students in first grade with five class room teachers, the average class size will be 24 students per class. That number will be reduced if another teacher is utilized in that grade level. 120 students divided by six classroom teachers will result in average class size of 20 students per class. Minorities are defined as students who are indicated as an ethnics status of Afro-American, Asian American, Native American or Hispanic American and is citizen of the United States has permanent immigrant or refugee status (University of Wisdom, Modison, 2009). The term minority is a relative term at this point in time. Minorities were often considered so because a majority of the population in the United State was Caucasians. However, there are many cities even states, where Caucasians are not the majority.

        The premise that reducing class size can lead to improved teaching and learning is one that most teachers and parents would readily endorse (Kennedy, 2003). Given a choice between a classroom with 20 students one with 30 studnets, who would want to argue that the larger class would be a better learning environment for each students in that class. The major problems schools are running into is that then funding for these small class sizes is not available, that the funding for these small class sizes is not available., or is decreasing. Many states and school districts dealing increasingly with shortfalls in revenue are smaller classes.

        Advocates of small classes believes that small class size allow teacher to give more individualized attention to students, manage their classrooms more effectively and provide more effective instruction that leads to better students performance. In a smaller classroom, a teacher has more time to get to know each student personality and academic strengths and weaknesses, students receive more attention and are less likely to become discipline problems with less time spent on classroom management; teachers can focus more on classroom instruction and students learning. Patricia A Wesley of the college of education at the University of Washington writes “my teaching and research experiences have convince me that both small classes and small schools are crucial to a teacher’s ability to succeed with students” (Wasley, 2002).  Some people are not convenience, however, that reducing class size ensures an academic advantage. Kirk A Johnson is a senior policy analyst in the center for data analysis, heritage foundation and asks the question, “are class size reduction programs uniformly positive or does a downside exists to hiring and placing more teachers in its public schools?” (Johnson, 2002). Because of state mandates in classroom reductions, schools are required to hire more inexperienced teachers and are suffering from a lack of qualified teachers to fill the classroom (Johnson, 2002). Others argue that there is no substantive proof that class size makes a difference in students performance and there may be other influences affecting students performance. Evidence linking smaller classes to improved performance is inconclusive for instance, difference studies have varied in their definition of small class size.

        According to Erik Haunshek (2003) of the Hoover institution, only 15 percent of the studies found that reducing class size has a statistically significant positive effect on performance. Moreover, almost as many studies (13 percent) found that reducing class size has a statistically negative effect on student performance. The remaining 72 percent and indicate that reducing class size has no statistically significant effect nonperformance. The results were similar in the 136 studies of elementary school class size. Only 13 percent of them found that reducing class size increase students performance, and 20 percent indicate that a reduction harms performance. Thus, in the words of Hanuyshek “there is little reason to believe that smaller class sizes systematically yield higher student achievement” (Barcia, and Fredua-Kwarteng, 2008). Evidence linking smaller classes to improved performance is therefore inconclusive. This study therefore looks at how class size affects secondary schools students and their academic performance in junior secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.


                The performance of junior secondary school students in Junior West African Examination Council in 2012 according to report made by (office of the statistics in PPSMB, 2012), calls for proper investigation of causes of poor academic performance of junior secondary schools students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few resear4ches has been dedicated to the correlation between class size, school population and academic achievement of students.


        The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of classroom size in effective teaching and learning of junior secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Specially, the study sought to:

1.  Determine the class size of junior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area?

2.  Determine the effect of class size in teaching and learning of junior secondary school students in the Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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