Background of the Study

Education is regarded as an instrument of par-excellence and the means of achieving human capital and national development. This underscores the aim of the introduction of universal basic education by Obasanjo’s administration. The type of education introduced to us by the colonial government was too loop sided that it does not suit the need and demand of the Nigerian citizens (FRN, 2004). According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), the introduction of the Universal Primary Education in September 1976 was the first major national initiative that was aimed at universal access to education. Ebuoh (2004) noted that the hindrances to Universal Primary Education are mainly ineffective personnel and inadequate material resources.

In addressing the same problem, Opara (2001) opined that UPE did not achieve its objectives and collapsed due to lack of trained manpower as well as high dropout rates, ethnic and religious influence as well as gender difference. Although the scheme collapsed it helped to sensitize parents towards sending their children and wards to schools. Its collapse according to Ukeje (1992) also led to a number of major re-organization in the educational system. Thus,the down fall of Universal Primary Education leads to the introduction of Universal Basic Education.

The Federal Government launched the Universal Basic Education on September 30th, 1999 for the purpose of achieving compulsory free and Basic Education. FRN (2004) opined that it was also Nigeria’s response to the achievement of

Education for all (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Universal Basic Education programme, as a policy reform measure, is aimed at rectifying distortions in basic education delivery in the country as well as catering for basic education in the formal and non formal sectors.

The Universal Basic Education according to Federal Ministry of Education (1999) encompasses primary, junior secondary and nomadic education as well as adult literacy is aimed at enabling all children in the Nigeria society to participate in the 9 years of schooling from primary one to Junior Secondary School three (JSS 111). In other words, Universal basic education is of low level basic and upper level basic. Low level basic encompasses primary schools while upper basic encompasses junior secondary schools. One of the main reasons for introducing the Universal Basic Education scheme is because Nigeria is a signatory to the 1990 geometry declaration of education for all (EFA) by the year 2000 and also member of the group nations committed to the total eradication of illiteracy.

The Universal Basic Education is thus intended to be universal and compulsory. Obanya (2000) opined that these terms imply that appropriate types of opportunities will be provided for the basic education of every Nigeria child of school going age up to JSS 3. This means that all Nigeria children shall be given opportunity to acquire basic education; hence Nigeria is one of the countries that signed the 2000 Dakar framework of action to ensure education for all (EFA) by the years 2015.Fabunmi (2004) intimated that basic education programmes was conceived as a response to the level of awareness and general education of the populace. The UBE scheme was introduced in order to take care of the large

population of the disadvantaged groups, the nomadic and improve access to education generally. Basic education according to Jaibeoba (2007) is the foundation for sustainable lifelong learning. It provides reading, writing and numeracy skills (FRN).

Operationally, basic education the type of education, in quality and content, that is given in the first level of education. This construct changes from country to country. In Nigeria, basic education was equated with six years of primary schooling in the past. Currently basic education is extended to include the three years of Junior Secondary School (FRN). Universal Basic Education (UBE) is conceived to embrace formal education up to age 15, as well as adult and non- formal education including education of the marginalized groups within the Nigerian society, (FRN, 2004). It is a policy reform measure of the Federal Government of Nigeria that is inline with the state objectives of the 1999:10 constitution which states in section 18 that.........

Government shall eradicate illiteracy, to thisend, government shall as and when practicable provide a free and compulsory uni vers alprimary education, free secondary education up to junior secondary three (JSS3) and freeadult literacy programs.

The main thrust of the Universal Basic Education programme is to lay the foundation for lifelong learning through the inculcation of appropriate learning, self awareness, and citizenship and life skills. Since the introduction of Universal Basic Education scheme, its implementation has not been well managed, thus leading to some problems. The implementation of Universal Basic Education scheme has not achieved desired objectives due to problems that beset its implementation such as poor training for teachers, poor supervision and monitoring of the scheme, funds, corruption, inadequate facilities and inaccurate statistical data. Thus, it isobserved that the successful implementation of the Universal Basic Education will require mobilization of the teacher.

Great number of problems is perceived in the implementation of Universal Basic Education scheme in Enugu State. Ebuoh (2004) stated that the teachers and the government are the two main participants in implementation of the Universal Basic Education. Teachers problems according to Ebuoh includes lack of sufficient classroom for the Universal Basic Education children, inadequate facilities, inadequate qualified teachers, poor performance of students in public examinations, inadequate supply of teaching materials and problem of planning and execution and problems of funding of Universal Basic Education.

The problems of unqualified teacher shows that many teachers do not possess the necessary competence or skills in developing valid assessment instmment for evaluating behaviour outcomes in the three domains of the children that is cognitive, affective and psycho-motor domain. A lot of efforts according to Ebuoh have been made to achieve the goals as enunciated in the action plan.

Thus, for a successful of UBE program implementation it is very important that some practical strategies be adopted.Many educational policies and strategies have attempted to address issues of access, equity, pretension, quality enhancement, absenteeism, dropout rates, inadequate learning, irregular attendance, under achievement, with little success, (FRN, 2004). The situation demands that better strategies should be employed to achieve aims and objectives of the government on the Universal Basic Education programme.

The word strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a specific goal. Hornby

  1. described strategy as a plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose. As there is always an element of uncertainty about future, strategy is more about a set of options than a fixed plan. Universal Basic Education has its own strategy that they will use in order to achieve its objectives. In order words, proper strategies will enable Universal Basic Education to remove all the obstacles to life­long education for millions of our citizens who otherwise would be denied the opportunities of education.

Strategies to be adopted for effective implementation of UBE program include financial strategies, supervisory strategies as well as training strategies for teachers. In support to these strategies, Ezeocha (1985) opined that to operate any system or project without adequate fund is an uphill task which could lead to either non-accomplishment or frustration on the job. Thus, fund is very important factor in operation and implementation of Universal Basic Education. In other words, effective implementation of Universal Basic Education depends on the availability of fund. Other strategies according to Ejike (2008) that can be effective in the implementation of UBE can be identified as follows: Provision of school libraries; Recruitment of qualified teachers; Provision of classroom facilities; and supervision and monitoring of the scheme by the UBE board. This undoubtedly will ensure the effective implementation of UBE programme at the upper level of the basic education which is junior secondary three (JSS 3).

Implementation on the other hand is the realization of an application or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard or policy. Efforts by government to promote education and literacy in Nigeria have failed because there was no provision for adequate facilities in the implementation of Universal Basic Education. Ebuoh opined that the successful implementation of Universal Basic education has serious implications because there is inadequacy in provision of funds. If we want children, and all citizens to acquire literacy, we must provide reading materials, the abundant and pleasurable reading materials are found in libraries. If we want learners to develop skills for life-long learning, we must give them opportunities to enquire, search, explore, practice, solve problems and all these are found in the libraries. School libraries, funds and good training of teachers are basic to the successful implementation of Universal Basic Education in Junior Secondary Schools especially in Enugu state.

Secondary education according to National Policy on Education (2004) is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage. Junior secondary school is the most innovative contribution contained in the national policy to the development and modernization of Nigeria’s educational system in the area of secondary education. The broad aims of Universal Basic Education in Junior Secondary Education according to FRN (2004: 18) are: “preparation for useful living within the society; preparation for higher education”.

The Junior Secondary School shall be both pre-vocational and academic. It shall be tuition free, universal and compulsory. It shall teach basic subjects which will enable pupils to acquire further knowledge and skills. The objectives of the

Universal Basic education in Junior Secondary in Enugu State will be achieved if the necessary strategies are adopted for the effective UBE program implementation.

To this end, there is need for effective implementation of Universal basic education at the junior secondary three level of education. Thus, this study seeks to identity the strategies for the effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme in junior secondary three level of education in Enugu state. Statement of the Problem

The importance of education at junior secondary school in the achievements of Nigeria’s educational objectives cannot be overemphasized. Education at this level despite the efforts of the Nigerian leadership through the introduction of universal basic education seems dissatisfactory due to the poor implementation of the UBE programmers at the junior secondary school level of education. The dissatisfaction in the implementation of UBE programmers in junior secondary school in Nsukka education zone is perceived in the following areas: poor teaching facilities and materials, inadequate funding, poor planning, monitoring and evaluation, lack of high productivity in junior secondary schools, poor teachers’ performance (untrained and inadequate teachers) and inaccurate statistical data collection.

From all indications, these factors impede the proper and effective implementation of UBE programmers in Nsukka Education zone, thereby making the aims of the programme unattainable and unachievable. Thus, the need to evolve strategies for the effective implementation of senior basic education in Nsukka education zone becomes of great paramount. Therefore, the problem of this study put in a question form is: What strategies will ensure effective implementation of senior basic education in Nsukka education zone of Enugu state.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the strategies for effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education programmes in junior secondary school (JSS3). Specifically, the study:

  1. ascertained the present state of UBE program in Nsukka education zone
  2. identified the constraints to the effective implementation of UBE program
  3. identified the personnel strategies that will enhance effectiveness in the implementation of UBE program
  4. found out the planning strategies that could enhance effective implementation of UBE programme

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study have both theoretical and practical significance. The study was hinged on human relations theory. This is because of its central idea that the human factor is of great relevance in the achievement of an organizational goal. The important of teachers and principals in the implementation of UBE in junior secondary schools cannot be over looked. This is because the effective implementation of UBE program in junior secondary schools demands direct involvement of all the academic staff of the junior secondary level of education.

The findings of this study will also be beneficial to the following: School

administrators, teachers, communities, state government and non-governmental agencies, students and researchers.The information provided by this study will enable school administrators adopt the best strategies for the implementation of educational programmes in Enugu State and in the nation as a whole.

The findings of this study will enable teachers to realize their roles in the implementation of educational programme. The findings of this study will also be of immense benefit to the state government who, it is hoped, will derive good knowledge on how to treat secondary school staffs’ (teachers and principals) who are the core implementers of UBE program for an effective result.

The study will also reveal to communities and non-government agencies, which are stakeholders in the implementation of Universal Basic Education programmers on the objectives of Universal Basic Education and need to improve its implementation at the junior secondary school (JSS 3) level of education.

The study will expose to teachers who are Universal Basic Education policy implementers in the classroom to imbibe new strategies they will use in the delivery of instruction. The study will also be of great benefit to the students, it will enable them to discover the aim and relevance of Universal Basic Education programme of which they are central figure.

The information provided by this study will also enable both the community and non-governmental agencies to know the prospects of UBE programmes. This will encourage them to support financially to the needs of the school for effective production.

Finally, the study will provide the base for other researchers who wish to carry out research in this field.

Scope of the Study

The researcher limited the study to Junior Secondary School 111 in Nsukka Educational zone of Enugu state. The zone has three local governments thus: Igbo- Etiti, Nsukka and Uzo-Uwani. The study focused on the present state of UBE Implementation in Nsukka; the constraints to the effective implementation of UBE program; the study will addressed also address personnel strategies that could enhance effective implementation of UBE program and the planning strategies that could enhance effective implementation of UBE program.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What is the current state of UBE implementation in Nsukka Education zone?
  2. What are the constraints to effective implementation of UBE in Nsukka Education zone?
  3. What strategies could be adopted for personnels’ improvement in the implementation of UBE programme?
  4. What are the planning strategies that could enhance effective implementation of UBE programme?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

HOi: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers as regards the personnels’ strategies to be adopted for effective implementation of UBE programme.

H02: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers as regards the planning strategies for effective implementation of UBE programme.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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