This study investigated the relationship betweenprincipals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. Guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses. Two questionnaires-How principals provide a fund questionnaire (HPPFQ) and the principals’ rate on the level of teachers’ task performance questionnaire (PRLTPQ) was used to collect the data. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to select a sample of 495 respondents. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to answer the research questions, while a t-test was used to test the hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. The major finding revealed that the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance, the discipline of students and involvement in co-curricular activities in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone could be described high and positive. The conclusion was that there was a significant relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in Onitsha Education Zone. Recommendations included the organization of regular seminars and workshops for both principals and teachers in order to improve financial management strategies of principals’ and boast teachers’ task performance.   




The present economic crisis which has affected the Nigerian nation has been biting so hard that the various social services such as education which the government used to provide has been adversely affected. Public attention has been drawn by the school administrators to the inadequate funding in public schools in this country. Both government and the general public have always responded in different ways to the financial crisis in Nigeria by granting aid or giving more financial support to schools. It introduced education task fund (ETF) to help to provide financial needs both for the student and teachers.  

Ezeocah (1985) states that for any venture to function, it must be financially viable. Finance is needed for any business organization to succeed. Prudent management of the financial resources of an organization is vital to the achievement of organization goals. Judicious management of educational finance is necessary just like any business that needs finance.

Financial management is the raising and administering of funds. It deals with how to plan, programme, budget for,  secure and maintain both material and financial resources in order to attain the institutions objective. It is an obvious fact that no institution can survive or carry out its functions effectively and efficiently  without utilizing  properly its financial resources. According to Pandy (1979), financial management is considered a vital and integral part of the overall management. In this broad view, the central issue of financial policy is the “wise utilization of funds”.

Adequate financial management strategies bring about job satisfaction which according  to Ndu, Ocho and Okeke (1997) has to do with a high level  of emotional stability of an individual in his job such that his morale is also high  and consequently he aspires to do more for the organization goals. This implies that the more teachers are rewarded, the more likely they are to work hard. The greater the extent in which an employee’s needs are satisfied in his job, the greater the extent to which he will response, presumably with gratitude or loyalty and effective productivity on that job.

 Every nation would want to give her citizens the best of education she can afford within the limits of her resources, since education is regarded as a prime instrument for social, economic, technological and moral dynamism. Consequently, the federal government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument per excellent for effecting national development. Infant education is so expensive now that the government finds it difficult to finance it alone. The government now encourages the local communities, individuals, companies and others to assist in financing education. Parents deny themselves a lot of things to keep their children in the school. With the help of government and these groups of people, substantial amount of money is raised for the school use. The amount provided is often not enough.

 Despite these efforts, one of the most serious problems facing the educational institutions today remains that of ineffective funds management strategies. Teachers find it extremely difficult to achieve educational goals, to provide services for which schools are set up these days. The problem could be brought about by inadequacy of funds. It is obvious that if the funds were adequate, enough instructional materials will be provided that will induce teachers to positive actions. At the same time, if the funds are grossly mismanaged, teachers will not fulfill their obligations to the schools. Principals therefore are required to use what resources, particularly subvention they have to motivate teachers so as to get what is wanted in this era of self-reliance. To ensure maximum task performance of teachers, principals’ must motivate teachers by providing them with instructional and their material needs 

Task performance in this study implies work or job

performance. It is also the responsibilities or obligations teacher have to fulfill. Whawo (1995) enumerates task performance of teachers to include admission of students, classification, registration, student’s welfare services, teaching, and evaluation of class work, reports to parents and guardians, co-curricular activities and issues of students discipline. Ogunna (1992) writes that the material needs  of the workers can be satisfied through adequate and regular payment of salaries and fringe benefits. Workers should be adequately remunerated for their efforts in order  to secure their  commitment and dedication to their task. 

Nigeria’s economy is so bad (continuous inflation and devaluation of naira) that government’s allocation to education is not equivalent to school requirements. Schools are expected to maintain existing services, pay staff salaries and allowances, purchase instructional materials and meet other recurrent expenditure in order to motivate teachers to carry out their task effectively and effectively. Whawo (1995) opines that teachers must be motivated with adequate compensation. The zeal  and enthusiasm in teachers should be sustained by providing them with enough benefits not minding their locations, gender and teaching experience. 

This study thereby aims at identifying the relationship that between secondary school principals’ financial (subvention) management strategies and teachers’ task performance.  

Statement of Problem

Principals’ as administrators of schools are expected to provide the required instructional materials that would influence the teachers to perform their task to a reasonable standard.

Teachers on the other hand are expected to be committed to their task performance to achieve the goals and objectives of the schools. Whawo (1995) stresses that the major task of educational

administrators is to utilize all available resources in an effort to achieve the objective for which schools are established. Unfortunately, principals mismanage the grants given to schools in the name of subvention to boost their financial resources. As a result teachers manifest signs of low job satisfaction, lack of sense of accomplishment, physical breakdown, unhappiness as well as various vices (Amoo and Adenle, 2003). Since instructional materials cannot be provided by principals, teachers exhibit laxity and truancy in their jobs. Many of them go to classes to teach at their own will, no longer care for the discipline of students, show less concern in extra curricular activities, etc.

 The consequences of effective financial management strategies by principals on teachers’ task performance remain under researched. Is effective financial management strategies related to teachers’ teaching performance? How does financial management relate to discipline of students by teachers and teachers involvement in extra curricular activities? These problems present the problem of this study 

Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. Specifically the study investigates:

1.   The relationship between principles’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance.

2.   The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students. 

3.   The relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-curricular


Significance of the Study

Maslow (1954) has implicated the role of motivation on the attainment of educational goals when Maslow postulated a theory of hierarch of human needs states that, it is only when a man gets all his needs that he can be satisfied. This theory can be applied in this study, teachers need to be motivated to perform optimally. This study will therefore be significant in the sense that it will find out the relationship between effective financial management and teachers task performance in secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. The study will be beneficial to teachers because it will reveal to them those things that will be provided for them to be motivated and bring out their best.

 Principals on their own will benefit  from the study in that it will throw light on factors that may pose problems in financial management and as a factors that impedes teachers task performance.

 Also, both government and public would see the need through the findings of the study for more financial grants to schools, monitor the usage to minimize mismanagement by principals. The study will help the government to know that delay in payment of teachers salaries contributes to their inefficiency.

 In addition, this study will help students to contribute money among themselves  to provide some instructional materials to the schools and draw the attention of their rich relations  to help provide some of the materials needed in the schools. This will motivate their teachers  to perform better. Finally, the findings will be of good help or contribution to research findings the relationship between financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance, on the other hand it will be of immense benefit to the researchers in the field.

Scope of the Study

This study covered all state government secondary schools in Onitsha Education Zone. The content was limited to the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ task performance. Financial management concentrates on government grants to education. Teachers’ task performance was investigated in terms of teaching performance, discipline of students and involvement in co-curricular activities.

Research Questions

          The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

1.   Is there a relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching performance?

2.   What is the nature of the relationship between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ discipline of students?

3.   To what extent does a relationship exist between principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-curricular activities?


The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance 

1.    The relationship between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ teaching  performance is not significant.

2.    school location is not a significant factor in the relationship between the respondents’ mean ratings of the principals financial management strategies and teachers’  discipline of


3.    There is no significant relationship between the mean ratings of male and female respondents on principals’ financial management strategies and teachers’ involvement in co-

curricular activities.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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