THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL (CASE STUDY OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)


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THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL (CASE STUDY OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

ABSTRACT:               

This study was conducted to investigate the the effect of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Economics in secondary schools using Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State as case study. During the study, data were collected by means of questionnaire and it was detected that the place of instructional materials is very important in the teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools. The researcher thereby stressed that instructional materials is very important and therefore should be in any school setting. Furthermore she also stressed that instructional materials will increase the interest of the students in learning, a development that will enable the child to become a useful person to the society. In conclusion, it was recommended that instructional materials should be used in every school in Edo State for effective teaching and learning process to take place

TABLE OF CONTENT   

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Table of content

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE   

Introduction

Background of the study

Purpose of the study

Research questions

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Statement of the problem

Limitation of study

Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

CHAPTER THREE         

Methodology

The sample area

Population of study

Research instrument

Validity and reliability of research instrument  

Data collection

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

REFERENCES    

APPENDIXES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help teaching and learning process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process moiré effective and more interesting to the student.

Health on the other hand, is been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) “as a state of complete, physical, mental and social well being not merely the absent of disease or infirmity.

According to Odue (2011), economics  is a process of acquiring health information to make judgment on health behaviour and practices. Economics  is sum of all experiences that will develop desirable attitudes, practices and knowledge of an individual, family of community health. The emphasis in economics  also includes a teaching and learning transaction between the health teachers and the recipient or student. According to Adeniyi (2000), the the effect of instructional materials is to communicate more permanently, health related issues, and information is retained when supplemented with aid. Certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skillfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of economics . Using Oredo Local Government Area as the case study.

However, man and animal possess the necessary abilities for learning. In other words they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. They are internal when they lie within the individual and external when they lie outside the learner or individual as the case may be.

Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and non-textual, the visual the auditory and audio-visual. Witwoth and Benson (2003), indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of instructional materials in economics  classroom that would enhances its teaching. With these concerns in mind and the educational development in Oredo Areas of Edo State. The current study is carried out to address the issues of the the effect of instructional materials in economics  teaching in the schools.       

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The the effect of instructional materials in economics  instructions has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The needs for exploring locally available materials as an alternative for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does not have to be retarded by lack of funds.

Hence, government must strive to develop her local technology in all its ramifications, since economics  is interested in providing solutions to man’s problems holistically. Many writers in economics  have pointed out the grossly unavailability of instructional materials coupled with teachers attitude towards the utilization during classroom teaching-learning situations.

The problems are that; instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and reluctant in using them. Thus, in this research attempt would be made to:-

Identify various secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State that required instructional materials.

Identify instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of economics in secondary school.

Identify instructional materials available in secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area.

Identify how the the effect of instructional materials like chalkboard, funnel board, model real things, overhead projector, tape recorders, radio, television etc affect the performance of students in secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area.    

1.3    Purpose of the Study

        The purpose of the study is;

1.      To identify how frequently economics  teacher utilizes instructional materials during economics  lessons.

2.      To identify problem associated with these of instructional materials in economics instruction.

3.      To identify reason why the teacher do not use instructional materials.

4.      To identify the benefits of instructional materials to the student.

5.      To identify suggested solutions to the problem of instructional materials.

1.4    Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

1.      How frequently do economics teachers utilize instructional materials during economics lesson?

2.      What are the problems associated with the the effect of instructional materials in economics instruction?

3.      What are the reasons why the teachers do not use instructional materials?

4.      What are the benefits of instructional materials to the students?

5.      What are the suggested solutions to the problems?

1.5    Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to identify the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of economics and how both the teacher and the learner can manipulate the instructional materials to achieve maximum learning objectives.

The study would be a great importance to the ministry of education and the Edo State Government and society at large. It will certainly help the ministry too to identify the basic instructional materials for teaching and learning of economics. This is equally of great importance to the students in Oredo, since it will help them to identify the instructional materials that are lacking in their school and make necessary provision for them.

1.6    Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers the use and effect of instructional materials in teaching economics in Oredo Local Government Area.

It is the desire of the researcher to go round some selected primary and post primary school in Oredo Local Government Area to make some observation of the the effect of instructional materials by the teachers and learners to effect the teaching and learning situation.

1.8    Definition of Terms:

Instructional materials:- Things that help teaching and learning process to be more effective and efficient.

Health: As a complete state of physical, mental social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease.

Education: Process of requiring information, instruction, knowledge and skills that brings about attitudinal change in the behaviour of an individual.

Performance: The process of accessing the student behavioural change through process of asking question.

Utilize: Making the effect of instructional materials on the individual.

Audios: These are teaching aids which appeal to sense of hearing.

Audio-Visual: These are instructional materials that can be used to assist teaching and learning via the sense of sight and hearing.  

1.9    Assumption

Learning is more meaningful to the child through the the effect of instructional materials.

Teachers who use instructional materials are more effective in their teaching than those who do not make the effect of instructional materials.

Instructional materials are so expensive and difficult to make.

A lot of teachers teach in abstraction.

It is the duty of the ministry of education to supply or provide instructional materials to school.

It is only the student in training that makes the effect of the instructional materials in order to pass their examination.    

Enough instructional materials are not being used in primary and post primary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

.

THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL (CASE STUDY OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)


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