The purpose of the study is to find out the relationship between continuous assessment and their final performance in Economics. The sample for the study consists of 100 students who were randomly selected from five stratified mixed and public secondary schools. The records of the students on continuous assessment and junior schools certificate examination results in social studies were collected from the continuous assessment division of the ministry of education and schools principals, respectively was used for the data analysis. Results showed that there are positive and significant relationship between continuous assessment and the junior school certificate examination results on the basis of gender ownership of school types. One of the major recommendation is that the school authority should provide conducive environment for students learning to improve their continuous assessment and academic performance. 


Title page i 

Certification ii

Dedication iii 

Acknowledgement iv 


Table of Contents viii


Background of the Study 1 

Statement of the Problem 4

Purpose of the Study 5

Significance of the Study 6

Scope of the Study 7

The Study Area 8

Definition of Terms 8


Structure of continuous Assessment C.A 10

Factors affecting students Performance 13

Relationship between C.A and SSCE Examination 18

Learning of Economics in Secondary School 22

Means of facilitating learning of Economics 24


Research Design 27

Population 28

Sample and sampling Technique 28

Instrumentation 30

Validity of the Instrument 31 

Reliability of the Instrument 32

Administration of the Instrument 33

Data Analysis 33


Presentation of Results 34

Discussion of Results 42




Conclusion 47 

Recommendation 49

Suggestion for further studies 51

References 52




Economics is the study of man and his economic activities. It deals with how man is able to exploit the available resource at his disposal for personal and national development. Hence, the general acceptability of economics in fields of human endeavour. It is obvious that in days gone by, people assumed that economics is only for transaction motive. Hence, only useful for those who are business inclined. But present day study and application of the knowledge of economics like political economics, war economics, science economics, e.t.c. This therefore makes it globally embraced and integrated in to all fields of human involvement and education is not an exception. Economics as a social science subject that play a vital role in developing a complete learner it has been considered as one of core subject. But it is quit amazing that student perform below average in the external examination in the higher institution of learning. The menace of economics as a core subject to some students which must be sat for in external examination, has no basis internal assessment are the examination done by secondary school subject which question are set and marked by their teacher. This major example which is paramount to the research work among other are continuous assessment in terms of test and terminal examination managed by independent bodies also count to the researcher. Here, the questions are set and marked outside the school jurisdiction, and a good example of this is the secondary school examinations conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC). Through recently National Examination Council (NECO) has joined to conduct the same type of examinations. The senior school certificate examination is a standardized examinations. The body responsible for this either WAEC or NECO. Administered the same question type to all student throughout the nation and beyond. And the results of the examination are managed and monitored by the conducting body be WAEC and NECO. This result is later sent to each participated school to be handed over to the candidate that sat for it at their various schools. With the above allusion to both internal assessment and external examinations, it is believe that a kind of relationship and variations will exist between continuous assessment and senior secondary school examinations. Hence, some student may perform well in Continuous Assessment and have poor grade or results in SSCE economics vis-à-vis while others might perform poor in Continuous Assessment and encouraging well in SSCE due to underlying factors. 


The cumulative record of students in form of Continuous Assessment are believed to give the frequency curve of student performances. Training the curve mighty show that there is improvement in the student performances in internal assessment. Thus, an attempt to predict their performances in senior school certificate examinations might evolve with all optimism of success. But, it has been observed over the years that they perform most impressively ion Continuous Assessment than what their performance in final school certificate examination (SSCE). To this end, the following question were identified; 

1. Examination of the relationship between academic performance of student in Continuous Assessment and SSCE. 

2. Determination of what extent can the performances of student in Continuous Assessment should used to predict their final performances in SSCE in the same subject vis-à-vis. 

3. Derivation of internal measurement standard for students performances in Continuous Assessment which could slightly reduce the gap that might exist in their performances in SSCE. 


This research work is to investigate the relationship between performance of student in Continuous Assessment and SSCE result in Economics. Thus, the purpose of the study is concisely sketched as below: - 

1. Determining the appropriateness of using or not using students C.A in the prediction of their SSCE results. 

2. Determining the effects of student preparation for internal examination with their preparation for SSCE in the same subject. 


The result of the research work will aid the understanding of the students to see the need to take C.A as an integral part of SSCE and adequately prepare for it. Besides in the eye opener it will serve for them to increase and not lessen their level of preparation for C.A and in writing their final examination in SSCE Economics. And for teachers, it will help them to standardize C.A. and internal examination question so that it could be a reliable parameter in predicting the performances of their students in senior school certificate examination on Economics. In addition to this is the way it will sentize the government and the curriculum developers to introduce and provide necessary learning materials and aids for teachers so that the students will be well equipped to sit for and pass C.A and SSCE vis-à-vis. Thus, discouraging every attempt of examination and malpractices. Finally the result of this study will serve as a useful guide to other researcher who may be interested in this area of study or other related area. 


The geographical coverage of this study is Offa Local Government Area of Kwara State. Five secondary schools have been randomly selected to represent the whole population. And the content focused on the similarity of the student’s performances at the C.A. with internal examinations and senior school certificate examination in Economic in 2006. 


Offa Local Government is a part of Ilorin metropolitan. Offa is the boarder of Kwara State and Oyo State of Nigeria. It is exactly 20 kilometers away from Ilorin city, the capital of Kwara State. It is predominantly of farmers and traders will few educated elites. And the educational sector is going through developmental stage. Hence the reason for scattered and scanty schools both primary and secondary. 


The following are the term used in this study with their definition and meaning. 

Continuous Assessment (C.A): This is the cumulative, progressive report of students performances since they have been learning and writing aptitude tests in economics unit their final year in senior secondary school. Senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE). This is an external examination conducted by an external body or bodies for schools participation. The questions are being set, administered and graded by two bodies in Nigeria. They are West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). 

Performances: - This refers to the academic achievement of each student in the examination. Prediction/Predicting: To tell what happen in the nearest future, vis-à-vis. A linear placement of data of information of study. 

Data: A collection of information on what to be researcher on.



This introduction chapter shall be reviewed under the following headings: - 

1. Structure of Continuous Assessment 

2. Structure of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. 

3. Factors Affecting Students Performance. 

4. Relationship between C.A and SSCE Examination. 

5. Learning of economics in secondary schools. 

6. Means of facilitating Learning of Economics


Continuous Assessment (C.A) is a cumulative aptitude test for all students. it is conducted in all school in Nigeria but, it is prepared, administered, marked, and graded internally within the school. Tracing the origin of continuous assessment, it is glaring that it has its origin as old as the educational sector of the nation. As a result of rigorous studies made about the causes of mass failure of Nigeria student in the University of London examination, it was advised that it would be most expedient to give Nigerian students on examinations inform of continuous Assessment and internal examination comparable in level and range of difficulty to the anticipated university of London Examination, Wendel (1990). The study by Wendel above shows the impact of C.A in the final examination.

In most cases, the result of C.A. is used to fill the grading sheets, which would be sent to WAEC or NECO before these final examinations. This is because it is believe that the result of C.A has direct correlation with the SSCE result besides C.A result is used to fill student testimonial. Structure of senior secondary school certificate “West African School Certificate Examination according  to Akanbi (1997), is an external paper taken by candidate mainly from all over the federation and beyond”, unlike the case of National Examination Council meant for only Nigeria. “WAEC is though out English speaking West African she also added the examination is externally scored. Hence, there is a high level of WAEC or ENCO is prepared for students in the final year of senior level of 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 system. The examination normally come up in May/June and July respectively of every year. All school activities are controlled by the requirement of examination which is the passport to a civil service job securing and the first step meeting the entrance requirement of the nation higher institutions. Thus grammar school/secondary school students have their ears and eyes open to nothing that is not directly related to their preparation for the school Certificate examination (Ukeje 1976). General question are based on the syllabus which students are expected to cover before their final examination. The examination usually require essay writings, multiple, choice questions, practical and oral papers. 



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