This study was designed to diagnose students’ performance in Mathematics in senior secondary school in Katsina Metropolis. The study centered its review of related literature on task factor on gender difference in mathematics performance, environmental factor as well as process factors in teaching mathematics.

Average, percentage and measures of relationship were used as approach to data analysis. The study revealed that task factors, process factors, environmental factors and process factors in teaching and learning mathematics influenced the general performance of the students in mathematics. Based on the finding of the study, suggestion were offered in the last chapter of the project. This is to guide the mathematics teachers and Government on how to improve the students’ performance in mathematics. Among secondary school students.


1. Tittle Page i

2. Certification ii

3. Dedication iii

4. Acknowledgement iv

5. Abstract v

6. Table of Contents vi

7. List of Tables ix



Background to the study1

Statement of the problem3

Objective of the study3

Research question4

Research hypothesis5

Significance of the study5

Scope and delimitation7



(Review of the Related Literature)


Male Students’ Performance in mathematics11

Female Students’ performance in mathematics17

Comparison of Male and Female Students’ in Mathematics performance…25

Implication of the Review to the Present Study32



(Research Methodology)


Research Design36


Sample and Sampling Procedure37


Validity of the Instrument39

Reliability of the Instrument39

Administration of the Instrument39

Method of Scoring40

Pilot Study Report41



(Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion)


Data presentation46

General Discussion57



(Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations)


Finding of the Study62



References 67

Appendix 72




Nigeria is aware of the need to become self-reliant technologically and scientifically. Therefore attention has to be given to Mathematics as the language of science. National Policy on Education (NPE) (2006 p.1) states that “there will be equal educational opportunities for all’’. It was discovered that, the female’s gender that forms about 48% of the Nigerian population census (2006) was not found in the school. This was due to societal pressure on females such as early marriage, distribution of girls from schooling by other factors.

Bandele (1988) revealed that “the differences in students’ performance are always attributed to environmental or process variables. This is in line with section 18 sub sections 1 and 3 of the Nigerian constitution which guarantees education as a right for every Nigerian child”. In realization of the importance of mathematics, science and technology, the NPE stipulates that “Education will be used as an instrument for scientific, technological and cultural development of the society’’.

Oladunni (1995) opined that “there was no significant difference between achievement of males and females in mathematics”. Mukhtar and Iliyasu (2006) were on the view that “in most mathematics and mathematics related fields, there tend to be more male than females. For instance when we look at the ancient mathematicians including; Pythagoras, Thales, Euclid and Pascal, all of them were men’’. However, one begins to ask on the possible causes of such imbalance between male and female could it be female’s brain are weaker than those of males?

According to Blasser (1991) “girls and boys start equal in mathematics and science performance in school, they appear to do equally well in both subject in elementary schools. Then some girls begin to lose interest in mathematics and science around the age of twelve. These girls then drop out from Mathematics Classes often forever closing the door on many career opportunities’’. This show that female’s student performed less than their counterparts, males. However student’s performance is not dependent on sex difference and this leads to continue verification and study on males and

females performance in Mathematics. Hence, the current study will investigate the comparative study between males and females performance in senior secondary school mathematics.



Sex disparities in mathematics education, is like geographical disparities have historically been prevalent in almost all societies and in different aspect of learning. Female students fell that they cannot compute with their counterpart male students in learning Mathematics. However, the gender differences in Mathematics lead to our females to become backward unsuccessful personals in the area of science and technology. Many researches were conducted in the field of gender issues on mathematics and still reported that there is a gap between males and females. There is need to encourage females not to fear mathematics in their life and make it simple for them to become self-reliant, self-esteem, take care of their family and equated with wider knowledge in science and technology. In fact the present study was “A comparative study on males and females performance in senior secondary school mathematics; A case study of katsina metropolis’’.


The objectives of this research are to:

1. Investigate differences in performance between male and female students in senior secondary schools mathematics.

2. To find out how differences are between male and female students performance in mathematics in senior secondary schools in katsina metropolis.

3. Ascertain the difference in academic performance of male and female students in mathematics.


The research questions of this study are:

1. To what extent do male and female students perform in senior secondary schools mathematics?

2. What is the male and female student’s performance in senior secondary schools mathematics?

3. What is the difference between male and female students performance in senior secondary schools mathematics?

4. Did the environment really affect the teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary school?

5. How the gap between their levels of performance will be reduced?


HO1: malestudents do not perform better than female students in senior secondary schools mathematics.

HO2: Female students do not perform better than male students in senior secondary schools.

HO3: There is no difference between performance of males and females in senior secondary schools.


The education of women holds the key to all elements in which depends population control, family health, personal hygiene, nutrition receipting to innovation and educational motivation of children. Therefore, educated females in mathematics will help in upbringing their children to become significantly educated.

Educated females in mathematics will encourage other members in their family to study mathematics and other related courses in science and technology without fear. Mathematics is

a commercial course especially now as era of science and technology, educated women in that fields will have an opportunity to get a better jobs, as well as chance to help their family members in all personal endeavors.

Therefore, mathematics is an indispensable tool to national development. If females are alleviated from darkness of ignorance, many people in the society will be encouraged to study mathematics and become self-reliant.

However, if females seemed to be able to fill in their quarter in the labour market, educated or knowledgeable mathematics girls will take part in the development of nation. This will encourage them to become expert and ready to teach in institutions of learning.

Finally, if females are well mathematics educated, it will help them to become self-motivated to face essentials and raising their level of education contribute significantly to development. The purpose of women education is to enable them contribute to life, become good citizens and develop self- discipline among others.


Although this study seems to be affecting some selected senior secondary schools in katsina metropolis. Area of comparison between male and female students performance in mathematics in senior secondary schools covered a broad range from management and financing to academic performance and population, however this research is solely concerned with the academic performance of male and female students in senior secondary school mathematics.

This research is on males and females performance in senior secondary school mathematics. Therefore, the research will cover the following secondary schools in Katsina metropolis:-

1. Government girl’s secondary school, Katsina.

2. Government college Katsina.

3. Government day secondary school KofarYandaka.

4. Government day secondary school KofarSauri.

5. Government day secondary school TudunMatawalle.

The schools are selected based on the moderate and higher performance academically, and to go with perspectives of the society. Single and mixed schools are selected to compare and contrast the performance of both the male and female students in Mathematics.


This chapter was aimed to investigate who learn more between males and females in mathematics. It was discovered that refuses to attend school due to certain factors or problems. It shows that some scholars were on the view that females and males performed differently, while others were on the view no significant difference among males and females in learning mathematics. Various evidence has shown that male performed better than females in different aspect of learning particularly in mathematics. Therefore, there is need to encourage our females to learn mathematics more in order to help them to contribute in the development of the nation. This chapter gives the objectives, research questions and research hypotheses. The objectives of this research were: to investigate male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school mathematics

and to compare male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school mathematics. Research questions were: to what extent male and female students’ perform in Mathematics, and what is their difference in senior secondary school Mathematics.

Hypothesis: male and female students do not perform significantly is senior secondary school mathematics and there is no difference between male and female students’ performance in senior secondary school mathematics. It been justified that many evidences have shown that, there is a gap or inbalance between male and female performances. Also, there is need to improve female to study and learn mathematics, because female have a great role to play toward the development of the nation. Also, if girls and boys are mathematically educated, the benefit will multiply within the community. Significantly, if females are mathematically educated, we could drive benefit in our families; it will help them to fill their quota in the labour market, free them from mathematics ignorance and society at large will be carried forward.



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