EFFECT OF TEACHERS STRIKE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL
The main aim of this study is to find out the influence of teachers’ strike action on the academic performance of secondary school students in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State. Three specific purposes and three corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study. The literatures related to this study were reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical and empirical studies. The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The population of the study comprised 11,041 students and 24 secondary schools in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 secondary school. Students were selected from the selected five schools for the sampling. The instrument used to obtain information was a structured questionnaire. The instrument used was validated by two experts from the department of measurement and evaluation in Godfrey Okoye University Enugu. The test-retest reliability procedure was adopted. The reliability index was 0.75. The data collected were analyzed using mean. Therefore, the findings of the study showed that strike action delays students learning and strike action delays completion of academic calendar. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that the government should stop using threats to the teachers as a solution to strike action rather they should use dialogue to bring a lasting solution
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
APPROVAL PAGE II
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Research Questions 7
Research Hypothesis 8
Significance of the Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework 10
Theoretical Framework- 30
Empirical Studies 33
Summary of the Literature Reviewed 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 46
Area of Study 46
Population of the Study 47
Sample and Sampling Techniques 48
Instrument for Data Collection 48
Validation of the Instruments ‘ 48
Reliability of the Instrument 49
Method of Data Collection49
Method of Data Analysis 50
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 51
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Findings 54
Educational Implication 56
Limitation of the Study 58
Suggestions for Future Study 58
Summary of the study 59
Appendix (questionnaire) 62
Background to the study
Could there be any meaningful transformation programme, structural adjustment programme and many point agenda in the absence of education imperative in a country? Education, the process that involves all round development of cognitive, psychomotor and affective ability of individuals in the society in order to promote the advancement of the individuals, society and the world at large should not be relegated to the background in whatever manner. The cacophony between the central authority and the staff unions should not be extended to the point of jeopardizing the success of our education system which will in turn have undesirable effects on the academic achievement of the students. Bearing in mind, no nation can develop beyond the capacity of her citizens. Staff industrial actions in Nigeria University, Polytechnic and College of Education systems have become the common phenomenon with the detrimental effects on the academic commitment and success of Nigeria students.
Despite the fact that tongue and mouth are inseparable, clash between the two is inevitable. As long as the academic staff union and employer (government) represented by politicians are at
variance in belief and philosophy there is bound to be industrial dispute between the two. The action and counteraction of the academic staff union (ASUU, ASUP and COEASU) in recent years to recalcitrant attitude of the federal government towards the past agreement; conditions of service, salaries and allowances, adequate funding as prescribed by UNESCO, University autonomy, integration of polytechnic academic staff payroll had led to frequent industrial action by COEASU, ASUP and specifically ASUU. These unions have resulted to employment of strike as the last resort to balance the power between their staff and the government when the bargaining and consultation failed to yield desirable result. Implying that the only language understands by the government is strike action. The counteraction of the academic staff unions to actions and inaction of the government is not self centered but incited by the quest to resuscitate the acclaimed fall in Nigeria education standard. The specific evidence to this fact are the agitation by ASUU and ASUP between 2013 and 2014 which includes improvement and provision of educational infrastructure in our dilapidated tertiary instructions; fulfilling 26% budgetary allocation to education as prescribed
by UNESCO so that Nigeria education system would be able to turn out the graduates that are capable of taking up the task of national development and be globally competitive like in the 70’s when Nigeria graduates were accorded high esteem at the global stage.
Furthermore, it is incontrovertible that agitations of academic staff unions are to foster the adequate conditions of service which would go a long way in stimulating advantageous atmosphere for students to accomplish the prerequisite curriculum objectives. And, this would reduce to the barest minimum if not to zero level the half-baked graduates or functional illiterates that Nigeria tertiary institutions are turning out lately. Unfortunately, the strike action
that is always embarked upon by the staff unions whenever there is industrial dispute between them and their employer (government) always put students at the detrimental conditions. The reasons for this are not farfetched; they end up having lesser period to prepare for academic exercises before summative evaluation hence possibility of poor academic performance. After the whole struggle, the academic staff salaries and allowances that were withhold during the industrial action would end up being paid.Aside the bad reputation the strikes conferred on Nigeria education system; delayed and extension of duration of students in school in the face of age sensitive or discriminating Nigeria labour market which plummet the economic value of the graduates in Nigeria labour market. And, unjust compression of the syllabus and academic calendar which deprived students of
adequate academic preparation and eventually have undesirable effects on the students achievement of educational objectives as laid down in the prescribed curriculum which paved way for the production of half baked graduates by Nigerian institutions is of great concern to the study at hand. In view of this, the specific objective of this investigative study is to the influence of teacher’s strike on educational system. Student’s go to school daily with happiness, expectations stress and ambition only to be turned back by the school authority because of strike. This study is to investigate the influence of teacher’s strike on academic performance of secondary school students.
Eregha (2001) have expressed his views on the Probable Caused, and solutions have been suggested. The percentage of repeated occurrence of strike has become the concern of parents, psychologist and social workers and all is anxious to eliminate it. The irregular payment of teacher’s salaries by government, which began in November 1981, which led to a strike action, by teacher’s, demoralized and frustrated the teacher’s. The effect of this was seen in the teacher’s borrowing money for feeding with the hope of getting paid in a short time. This ugly situation persisted until teachers became the laughing stock of everyone. From an oral interview carried out by me, it
was seen that many of the teacher’s became Professionals because according to the teacher’s, they could no longer depend on teaching alone for their survival instead of depending on a job which will not bring positive reward at the end of the month, many took to farming, fishing, trading etc in addition to the teaching job.
The action (strike) usually poses a lot of negative effects on the student’s. This is because the period that should have been used to teach the student’s is spent at home all in the name of strike. This makes it impossible to cover the syllabus and at the end of the day the student’s come out of school with lesser knowledge than they ought to have acquired, thereby making it very hard for them to compete with their counterparts that finished from private schools. Parents are also not left out why did I say so? Because when they see their children at home during the period of strike, they tend to be unhappy and very uncomfortable. Basically, the influence of teachers strike on academic performance of student can limit the knowledge of students. Educational system in udi Local Government Area of Enugu State is adverse and cannot be ignored because it is evident in the kind of products that graduate from our schools these days.
. In this vein, there is the need to reduce strike and its effect to improve on the teaching-learning outcomes in our schools.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The influence of teacher’s strike on academic performance of secondary school students over the years have been an issue that cannot be overemphasized.
Huge resources are annually put into educational expansion, as an investment intended to help reap corresponding returns. In this type of investment students are the prime inputs, their development is its prime objective, their attitude greatly affect its process and in the end they are its prime output. Since student’s
play an important part in the investment dimension of education, teachers and other parishioners in education have the responsibility of earning effective and efficient teaching and learning outcomes. The problems associated with this study are the lack of provision of fringe benefits of the teacher’s, low salary, and lack of promotion, shorter working days, political Instability and lack of government interest in education. However there has been strike in the system, which affects learning’s process.
The unstable industrial relation climate in Nigeria just within the decades has resulted in all-time record of lost working hours, unprecedented work stoppage as a result of strike action.
By October 1981,both federal and state government were broke, by December, seven out of the nineteen state governments could hardly pay the salaries of their employees; by June 1982,Bendel,Rivers,Cross Rivers, Benue and Imo States were owing teachers two to four months arrears. It was only when junior workers threatened strike action in Cross River state and teachers actually abandoned classes in Bendel State after not receiving January salaries as at April 1982 that both government cleared part of the outstanding amount . Thus we are of the view that strikes have negative influence on the learners. It is necessary that we discuss the effect of strike and learning among secondary schools students
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to attract the attention of both the educationist and non-educationalist to the influence of strike on the academic performance of students, and to also examine the causes of strike by Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT). The following variables shall be examined;
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The importance of this study is to bring to the knowledge of the public; the effects of NUT strike actions on our educational system. The impact of strike on our secondary schools and the academic performance of the students by the academic staffs and the secondary schools in enhancing socio-economic and political development of the nation.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Strike action by NUT is not peculiar to some selected secondary schools in udi L.G.A. alone but to all secondary school in Nigeria. This study intends to carry out a comparative analysis of performance chart of the final year students (SSS III) of some selected secondary school in udi L.G.A. as collected by the examination and this study intends to carry out a comparative analysis of six (6) years performance chart of the final year students SSS III of some selected secondary school in Udi L.G.A. as collected by the examination and this study intends to carry out a comparative analysis of three years performance chart of the SS I and SS II students in Enugu College Secondary Schools in Udi Local Government Area as collected by the examination and class teacher records.
1. Does teacher’s strike affect the academic performance of student’s?
2. Does increase in the number of school dropout, as a result of strike?
3. Does delay in teacher’s salary lead to strike?.