EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED BY TEACHERS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING SOCIAL STUDIES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IBESIKPO ASUTAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE.
TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page………………..iCertification……………iiDedication………………iiiAcknowledgment……….ivAbstract…………………viTable of content………viiCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study 1.2 Statement of Problem1.3 Purpose of the Study1.4 Significant of the Study1.5 Research Questions 1.6 Research Hypotheses 1.7 Basic Assumption of the Study1.8 Delimitation of the Study1.9 Limitation of the Study1.10 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 Theoretical Framework 2.1.1 The Instructional Design Theory (Regelith 1999)2.1.2 Jerome Brunner’s Theory of Instruction (1992) 2.2 The Conceptual Review 2.2.1 Text Materials and Student’s Academic Performance 2.2.2 Charts and Students Academic Performance 2.2.3 Models and Students Academic Performance2.2.4 Pictures and Students Academic Performance 2.3 Empirical Review 2.4 Summary of the Literature Review
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODS3.1 Research Design 3.2 Area of Study3.3 The Population of the Study3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 3.6 Validation of the Instrument 3.7 Method of Data Collection 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Hypothesis - by - Hypothesis Analysis of Data4.1.1 HYPOTHESIS4.1.2 Hypothesis 2 1.1.3 Hypothesis 31.1.4 Hypothesis 44.2 Discussion of Findings 4.2.1 Textbooks and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies 4.2.2 Chart and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies4.2.3 Models and Student’s Academic performance4.2.4 Pictures and Students Academic Performance in Social Studies
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 Summary of the Study5.2 Conclusion 1.3 Implications of the study 5.4 Recommendations1.4 Suggestions for Further ResearchREFERENCESAPPENDIX 1APPENDIX IICHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.2 Background of the Study Social studies is an integrated study of man in his social, economic, physical and technological environment in Nigeria. The content in junior secondary school is focused on citizenship education, politics, economy, geographic issues, socio-cultural events, science and technology. Social studies is a problem-solving oriented subject area which requires the use of diverse instructional pedagogies (and instructional materials) to instill appropriate values, critical thinking and the inculcation of various life long skills for sustainable survival in the nation and its surrounding communities (Mezieobi, 2012). The nature of social studies as an activity based course, requires instructional materials to facilitate teaching. Students’ participation in learning and deep understanding of abstract concepts and events are heightened, simplified and made realistic to learners’ cognition. There is a positive correlation between utilization of instructional materials and student learning. Esu (1995) stated emphatically “without adequate development, and utilization of appropriate instructional materials, the achievement of laying sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking will be very hard to achieve”. Therefore, the use of instructional materials in the teaching-learning process becomes necessary as facilitator for learning. The three important components of learning and teaching are the content, the objective and method of teaching. These three are closely interdependent one cannot function without the other since the factor which influences one can also influence the other. Teacher uses communication as a means through which any instructor can share knowledge with the students in a way they can understand. Without effective communication there can be no education (Adeyanju, 2006). For effective communication with students the teacher employs different facilities or materials to present the contents of the curriculum. These facilities are usually referred to as teaching aid or instructional facilities (charts, pictures, models and text materials), result in effective teaching and learning process (Adeyanju, 2006). Generally, instructional facilities or materials (text materials, charts, models, and pictures) consist of concrete facilities and media used in presenting or impacting information in teaching and learning situation in the school by the teacher. The use of instructional facilities in teaching and learning is very essential in the teaching of social studies in secondary school. Allen (2000) asserts that instructional facilities are not teacher but students aids. Such materials are aids for learning rather than aids for teaching. Effective use of instructional facilities like chart, models, text materials, and pictures in teaching situation in social studies lesson more meaningful and less boring to the students and even to the teachers. Learning is abstract and improper use of learning facilities tend to reduce the vital ingredients of the lesson while the aims of the lesson may be defeated. Some of the identified teaching aids that aid teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools are recommended textbooks, charts, draw models, graphs, pictures and close circuit television. Proper utilization of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies help to ease the teacher’s spoken and written words which are deceptive medium because they convey different meaning to different learners. It therefore becomes necessary to use usual aids to clarify meaning and to present facts objectively (Adenyanju, 2006).Instructional facilities enhance learning and ensure accurate feedback on part of the teachers. Raj (2001) states that visual aids are devices that present or assist in presenting instructions and encourage responses, where these instructional facilities are used, the learning environment becomes highly stimulated and the students take greater advantage in learning. Instruction can be improved through appropriate use of instructional facilities in learning social studies in secondary schools. Instructional devices could make learning experiences more rewarding, more realistic and more dynamic. Using adequate learning resources in learning social studies is an innovation to make learning more pleasant, encourage participation and cooperation of the learners in the classroom.With the prominent role learning resources have played in the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools, the researcher has made effort to know the extent to which these instructional materials have been put to use and how effective and properly they are used. Based on the above statements, the researcher deems it necessary to investigate how proper utilization of learning resources will help students to learn fast and make meaningful and resulting in better academic performance of students in Akwa Ibom State Secondary Schools.1.2 Statement of ProblemLack of instructional materials in the public secondary schools has constituted serious problems over the years. Inadequate and inappropriate instructional facilities for the teachers and the learners have contributed immensely to poor academic result in public schools. This phenomenon has created serious concern to the students, teachers and members of Parent Teachers Association (PTA). Lack of instructional facilities has become topics for deliberation in educational seminars and workshops as efforts towards lasting solution.Many public schools lack modern social studies text materials for the classroom teachers and for the students. Teachers resort to mere talk and chalk while the learners only listen. Some social studies teachers have no charts to illustrate lesson. It is doubtful if such inadequacies would not affect student’s academic performance adversely. In some public schools, the teachers have no access to various models such as toys, works of arts or artificial objects that can be used in explaining matters in social studies. A lot of teachers and learners have no access to assorted pictures that correspond with the lesson taught. It is asking if such situation would not affect student’s academic performance in social studies. In order to provide learning and teaching facilities problems and based on the above observation, this study seeks to investigate the use of text materials, pictures, charts and models on students academic performance in social studies in secondary schools in Ibesikpo/Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.1.3 Purpose of the StudyThe main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructional facilities and student’s academic performance in social studies in public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. The specific objectives of this study includes:1. To find out the extent to which the use of text materials, would enhance student’s academic performance in social studies.2. To investigate the importance of charts in facilitating students academic performances in social studies.3. To assess how the use of models can contribute toward students academic performance in social studies 4. To ascertain how the use of pictures can enhance student’s academic performance in social studies.1.4 Significant of the StudyAt the completion of this study, the result will be useful to the students, teachers, and members of Parents Teachers Association (PTA),Guidanc, Counsellors, government as well as other researchers because where these instructional facilities are used, the learning environment becomes highly stimulated and the students take greater advantage in learning. It will also make learning experience more rewarding, more realistic and more dynamic and encourage participatory cooperation of the learners in the classroom.This study will suggest to the Government through the Ministry of Education to make adequate provision for proper recruitment of qualified social studies teachers in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. It will also help educational planners and stakeholders in the education sector to ascertain the extent to which proper selection and use of instructional materials influences the academic performance of student in public secondary schools in the study area.1.5 Research Questions The following questions were raised to guide the study.1. Is there any significant difference in the academic performance of students who were taught using text materials and those taught without?2. Do students who were taught using charts and those who were taught without, differs significantly in their performance in social studies? 3. Is there any significant difference in social studies performance between students who were taught using models and those taught without?4. Is there any significant difference in social studies performance of student who were taught using pictures and those taught without?1.6 Research Hypotheses The following research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 of significance.2. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of social studies students who were taught using text materials and those taught without.3. There is no significant differences between the academic performance of students who were taught using chart and those who were taught without.4. There is no significance difference in academic performance of social studies students who were taught using models and those were taught without.5. There is no significant difference in academic performance of social studies students who were taught using pictures and those who were taught without.1.7 Basic Assumption of the StudyIn carrying out this study, the following assumptions were made:2. It was assumed that every social studies teacher was well trained on the importance of using recommended text materials that can facilitate students high academic performance in social studies.3. It was also assumed that there is a well equipped library in every public secondary school across the state.4. It was assumed that all the public schools were provided with adequate and appropriate instructional materials during the present free and compulsory education system.5. The school principals were assumed to assist the class teachers in providing the necessary instructional facilities in each school.6. It was assumed that most of the needed instructional gadgets such as the charts, models and pictures can be produced locally by the teachers.1.8 Delimitation of the StudyThe study was essentially delimited to instructional facilities and students academic performance in social studies in public secondary schools. Its scope covered facilities such as text materials, charts, models and pictures. Selected students of Junior Secondary Two (JS2) in public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area were used for the study.
1.9 Limitation of the StudyOne of the limitations of the study was time factor. Another limitation of the study was in respect of the development and administration of the instrument as well as the collation of information from all schools which took many days. There are some vital information too which is needed from the respondents for this study but they would not willingly want to give based on their personal reason. 1.10 Definition of Terms Definition is often necessary for a proper understanding, because words usage and implied meaning vary based on users. The following terms used in the study are meant to be interpreted as follows:⦁ Effects: This refers to a change that instructional materials cause on students academic performance.⦁ Instructional Materials: These refers to the materials utilized by the teacher to present the content of the curriculum and to enhance effective communication in a classroom situation. ⦁ Academic Performance: This refers to the level of knowledge exhibited by the learners as a result of proper use of instructional facilities by the teacher in classroom situation.⦁ Social Studies: This is the study that deals with man and his environment. It concern with the way man lives and interact with his social and physical environment.⦁ Students: It refers to a person who studies in secondary school.Secondary School: This is the second level of formal educational institution where a child is given a foundation and in which subsequent education is based on..