INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) UTILIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION ON ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
The study was designed to examine the utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State. The specific purposes of the study were; identify the available ICTs for adult education programmes in Cross River State, find out the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes, identify the implementation process adopted in adult education programmes in Cross River State. determine the constraints to the utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State and ascertain the strategies for effective utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State. The study was guided by five research questions and three hypotheses. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. The study showed available ICT facilities to include, the internet, computers, radios, mobile phones etc. The study revealed that the identified ICTs available will aid in the utilization and implementation of adult education programmes in Cross River State. The work also highlighted the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education propgrammes which is to a very large extent. The study identified the implementation process to include; the use of virtual libraries, emails, discussion groups, mailing list, video conferences and collaboration with others. The study also identified the constraints to include; absence of internet facilities, lack of funds to procure computer, high cost of linking computers to the internet etc. The identified strategies are training of staff, encouraging the participation in seminars, conferences and workshops, establishing cyber cafes that allows easy usage of the internet. Based on the findings, the researcher made some recommendations which are ranging from the national and state agencies for adult and non-formal education should create an environment where instructors can become conversant with the identified ICts, to the organization of seminars, conferences and training of staff by the agency. The limitations, suggestions and summary of the study were made based on the findings.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of Contents vi
List of table viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of Problem 11
Purpose of the Study 12
Significance of the Study 13
Research Question 17
Research Hypotheses 17
Scope of the Study 18
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 19
Conceptual framework 20
⦁ Concept of ICT in Adult Education 20
Implementation of ICT in Adult Education 26
Theoretical Framework 41
Empirical Studies 48
Summary of literature review 52
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD 56
Design of the Study 56
Area of study 56
Population of the study 57
Sample and Sampling Technique 57
Instrument for Data Collection 57
Validity of the Instrument 58
Reliability of the instrument 59
Procedure of data collection 59
Method of Data Analysis 59
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF
Summary of the Major Findings. 78
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 80
Discussion of Findings 80
Educational Implications of the Study 85
Limitations of the Study 86
Suggestion for further Study 87
Summary of the Study 87
Appendix A 98
Appendix B 103
Appendix C 107
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1a: Mean and standard deviation of adult education
instructors on awareness of the use of ICT. 61
Table 1b T-test analysis of instructor and learners on
the level of awareness on the use of ICT in adult education. 63 Table 2a. Mean and Standard Deviation of the Extent of Utilization
of ICT in Adult Education Programmes in Cross River State. 64 Table 2b: T-test analysis for instructors and adult learners on
the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes
in Cross River State. 65
Table 3a: Mean and standard deviation on implementation processes adopted in adult education programme in
Cross River State 67
Table 3b: T-test analysis of instructors and adult learners on the implementation processes adopted in
adult education programmes. 69
Table 4a: Mean and standard deviation of constraints to the utilization and implementation of ICT
in adult education programmes in Cross River State. 70
Table 4b: T-test Analysis of Instructors and adult learners
on the constraints to the utilization of ICT in Adult education. 71 5a: Mean and standard deviation of the strategies for effective
utilization and implementation of ICT programmes
in Cross River State. 74
Table 5b: T-test analysis of strategies for effective utilization of ICT programmes in Cross River State 76
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Education is faced multiplicity of issues. These issues include access, quality, relevance, amongst others (Hallak, 1999). Researches in the field of education have the ultimate goal of adding value to the educational process. This explains the numerous studies conducted in different areas and variables that have influences on education (Akir, 2006; Nkanu, 2006; Eyo, 2005).
According to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999), the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government; and government shall achieve this through the provision of equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels and the promotion of science and technology. More so, the National Policy on Education (2004) describes education as an instrument for national development. It also recognizes the place of ICT in education, as Articles 101(a), 102(a) and 102(b) are predominantly concerned with ICT. Based on its acknowledgement of the pivotal role of ICT in education, the NPE makes a commitment, on behalf of government, to “provide facilities and necessary infrastructure for the promotion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of
education.” Both the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the National Policy on Education therefore recognize the inter- relationship between ICT and education.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be described as a new entrant in Nigeria in general and education in particular, if one considers when the country adopted a policy on ICT. The country got a National Policy for Information Technology in March 2001, establishing the Nigerian National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) in April 2001 but got an enabling law giving legal recognition to the Agency in April 2007 (Iboma, 2007; Okonji, 2007). This state of affairs explains the novelty of ICT in Nigeria. Interestingly, the National Policy for Information Technology is explicit on using ICT as the bedrock for national survival and development. In its mission statement the policy adopted to use ICT for “education” in its quest to contribute to the developmental strives of the country. The policy even proposed to make the use of IT mandatory at all levels of educational institutions through adequate financial provision for tools and resources (National Policy for Information Technology, 2007). With such national stance, a research into the utilization of this
new concept in adult education can be justified.
ICT is a very broad field. It includes communication devices and applications like television, radio, computer, cellular phones, satellite systems, network hardware and software, and the various services and applications associated with these, including video conferencing. According to Akir (2006), ICT is a term that refers to stand-alone computers, networked devices and telecommunication technologies with multimodal interface, mobile phones/devices with capability to perform data communication, and other technologies that allow multimodal and interactive communication. The National Policy for Information Technology (2007) sees ICT as computers, ancillary equipment, software and firmware (Hardware) and similar procedures, services (including support services) and related resources. This according to the policy includes any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment, that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission or reception of data or information.
It is worth mentioning that these definitions are very ambitious attempts to incorporate the very wide scope of ICT into one definition. The implication is that the keywords of these definitions depict the different spheres of ICT. Nkanu (2006) identified computers,
photocopiers, CD-ROM Databases, printers, videotapes, and audio tapes as some examples of ICT. These examples are themselves umbrellas covering other subordinate units. For instance, the computer can be seen as having hardware and software components. The software can be system or application software, furthermore, application software includes Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Oracle, Photoshop, Corel draw, Microsoft Outlook, internet explorer etc. These applications software are also seen as ICT. However, for the purpose of this research, ICT is defined and restricted to include the Internet. The Internet is a worldwide interconnection of computers that allows for sharing of resources, and which accessibility is not limited by time and space.
Adult education as a non-formal education system, is a kind of education designed for the illiterate population, the formal school dropouts, and the unskilled and semi-skilled workers and carried on outside the formal schools system, (Eyibe, 1999). The recipients of adult education programmes need functional literacy education, remedial education and in-service, on the job vocational training for improvement in their different areas of educational discontent. Consequently, the National Policy on Education (2004) in its section 7 stated the objectives of adult and non-formal education as follow;
(a) Provide functional literacy education for adults who have never had the advantage of any formal education;
(b) To provide functional and remedial education for these young people who prematurely dropped out of the formal school system;
(c) To provide further education for different categories of completers of the formal school system in order to improve their basic knowledge and skills;
(d) To provide in-service on the job vocational training for different categories of workers and professionals in order to improve their skill;
(e) To give the adult citizens of the country necessary aesthetic, cultural and civil education for public enlightenment.
Expectedly, the realization of these objectives by the government and other agencies involved in adult education automatically should eliminate the observed educational discontents of the identified categories of adults. However, a lot of obstacles have continued to make the realization of the adult education objective unattainable as observed by Nwabuko, (2004). According to him, the following among others are barriers to the realization of adult education objectives.
(a) There was absence of formidable base upon which to establish a viable policy and a strategy of implementation.
(b) Inadequate or even total lack of planning and supervisory-bodies vested with immense responsibility of implementing the policy needs.
(c) Lack of operational structures and machinery to supervise, arrange, follow up, coordinate and adjust programmes so that the goals could be achieved within the defined time frame.
(d) Insufficient number of personnel, and
(e) Systematic data gathering is not always provided which hamper essential analysis and evaluation.
Fortunately these are strong areas that information communication technology has the potential for action. In recognition of the enormous role of ICT to education, the federal government of Nigeria in April, 2001 established the National Information Technology Development Agency, (NITDA), to implement the National Information Technology (IT) policy, as well as promote the healthy, growth of ICT in Nigeria (Onweh, 2004). According to him, the mission statement of the policy is, use IT for:
2. Creation of wealth
3. Poverty alleviation
4. Job creation and
5. Global competitiveness
Recognizing the importance of ICT in education, the Federal government established a sustainable framework for educational management information system (EMIS). EMIS is an integrated, user- machine system for providing information to support operations management, and decision-making functions in education (FRN, 2001). It is a member of the family of management information systems (MIS) which utilizes computer hardware and software, manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control and decision making and a database. So when MIS is applied to education it is called EMIS. When applied to Health and Agriculture, it is called HMIS and AMIS respectively.
When ICT is applied in adult education programmes, it begins with the fundamental database and data-processing element, the system proceeds to a subsystem that supports modeling and scenario analysis and ends with a subsystem that supports strategic planning. This subsystem for purpose of this paper is telecentre. By this, ICT, through telecentre in adult education will be able to provide the right information on adult education programmes to the right adult clientele at the right time, in the right way and to achieve the objectives of such adult education programmes (Nkanu, 2006).
A reality, fast gaining prominence and power is that of convergence, meaning a combination of ICTs or formats of delivering information and communication. It is this functional convergence ability of the ICTs that has made them suitable as a delivery mode for most adult education programmes. According to Oduaran (1998) ICTs provide increased participation of clients in Adult Education programmes. Programme management can be used to solve the problem of low level participation on the part of the adult.
ICTs have the capabilities of enhancing the internal efficiency of adult education programmes in such areas as the collection, storage, control, processing, and utilization and exchange of realizable data.
There is hardly any doubt that an Adult Education programme carefully planned and managed on the basis of the procurement of reliable data is the first and most urgent requirement for establishing efficient programmes that could attract, a high level of participation.
The use of the ICTs in interacting with other countries has enabled information to be circulated round the world. This enables planners, administrators and academicians in the field of Adult education to know what is going on globally in the area. Oduaran (1998) noted that information exchange is vital to the survival of organizations. It is common knowledge that most efficient information systems are ICT-
based and speed up the rate of growth of organizations most of the time.
There has not been maximum use of ICTs in the field of Adult Education. Most adult education programmes require the use of ICTs from the stages of programme development to programme evaluation. But some factors such as lack of physical facilities, high cost of ICT components, dearth of sufficiently trained instructors, and lack of financial support cripple efforts in the use of ICT for most adult education programmes.
As a result of the above constraints, there is obvious reluctance to establish ICT driven adult education programme package for adult in the urban and rural communities. Countries like Mali (Timbuckta telecentre), Mozimbique, Uganda, South Africa and Senegal, to mention but a few, are some African countries that established Telecentres in communities where ICTs are utilized. Services provided in these centres include photocopying, E-mail, Internet, word processing and type setting, IT skills training, library services, telephone, facsimile, Television, video services, Radio and Scanning etc (IDRC, 2003).
In Nigeria, cybercafés exist mostly in the urban areas. There is almost none existing in the rural areas chiefly due to the absence of electricity and low patronage as majority of the adults and young
persons resident in the rural areas have no training in ICTs. At the various state adult education agencies and adult education centres, the use of ICT is only limited to the utilization of mobile telephones and radio to send messages to programme coordinators/supervisors and to make advertisements/announcements respectively. ICTs are not used for the actual programme delivery to the adult learners of different adult education programmes.
Finally, it is established by researchers that cultural and economic differences affect the applicability of a research result across divergent divides. Factors that influence the adoption and use of ICT in one country may therefore not be applicable to another country, (Anadarajan, Igbaria, & Anakwe, 2002). A gap therefore exists to establish the factors that affect the utilization of ICT in Adult education in Nigeria considering our own peculiarities. More so, Agbonlahor (2006) averred paucity of research on the utilization of ICT in Nigeria, claiming that where this is available, it is usually focused on the library. This creates a need to establish how adult education programmes are being carried without ICT. These amongst other gaps are what the present study seeks to fill.
Statement of Problem
The world is dynamic. This dynamism implies that changes, modifications and adjustments are part and parcel of the society as humanity makes conscious effort to improve upon the present reality at every point in time. In its non-static nature, the society shifted to an era where education assumed a status of indispensability in societal development. This all-important standing has since been acknowledged by all and sundry.
Therefore in a bid to maximize the benefits of adult education, researchers have been involved in finding ways of improving upon adult education. This is evident in studies conducted in the multiplicity of variables link motivation, teaching methods and techniques, that have direct and indirect influence on the outcome of the adult teaching learning process. Researches have been conducted on the learners’ interest, the instructors effectiveness, the role of laboratories, teaching aids, the influence of physical infrastructure, instructional techniques, among many others on the outcome of the adult educational process.
Very interestingly, one of the newest entrants in the array of variable that influence adult education is ICT. It involves technologies that allow for information and data processing, storage, retrieval, transmission and reception. The Internet is an example of ICT and it can
be put to various uses in adult education. This includes browsing for materials for assignment and term papers, accessing online journals, using the resources in virtual libraries, amongst others.
There seems to be dearth of research on the extent of usage of ICT in adult education programmes in Nigeria. More so, researches on the factors influencing the utilization of ICT are done outside Adult Education, and are not particularly done vis a vis adult education. These are some of the gaps that the present study intends to fill. The study seeks to identify the level of awareness on the use of ICT in adult education; the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education; the factors influencing the extent of utilization; and the strategies for effective utilization of ICT in adult education. The statement of the problem of this study can therefore be posed in the form of a question thus: what is the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes and what are the strategies for effective utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study will be to investigate the extent of utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes. Specifically, the purposes include:
1. Identify the ICT available for adult education in Cross River State.
2. Find out the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes.
3. Identify the implementation processes adopted in adult education programmes in Cross River State.
4. Determine the constraints to the utilization and implementation of ICT in Adult Education programme in Cross River State.
5. Ascertain the strategies for effective utilization and implementation of ICT in Adult Education programmes in Cross River State.
Significance of the Study
ICT in today’s world is a pivotal tool in national development. A research with a prospect of strengthening the application of ICT in adult education is therefore a research towards national development. It seems that this research holds much positive prospects to the developmental strive of Nigeria. This research shall be of immeasurable benefit to Policymakers, National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), adult instructors, adult education curriculum experts, learners, researchers, and agencies for adult and non formal education in that it will equip them with knowledge of how to adopt ICT in their various functions.
It is an indisputable fact that ICT is relatively new in Nigeria. As a major contribution of this study, this research would add to the data pool on relevance of ICT in adult and continuing education.
An aspect of this research is focused on identifying the level of awareness on the use of ICT in adult education. The outcome of the study in this dimension would help in determining whether there is need to raise more awareness on the utilization of ICT in adult education. This would facilitate a more effective application of ICT in adult education, thus enabling a qualitative adult education. Policymakers have been mentioned as one segment of the society that would benefit from the findings of this study. Every viable policymaking institution relies on scientific data. This study would generate such scientific data as it relates to ICT and adult education. The data to be so generated would assist policymakers in making policies regarding ICT and adult education.
Moreso, the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) is another major beneficiary of this study. The agency has the responsibility of ensuring a successful implementation of the National Information Technology (IT) Policy in Nigeria, which policy thrust is on making Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa and using it as the engine for sustainable development. The findings of this study
would serve as an evaluation tool to the agency. It shall bring to the fore the level of awareness/utilization of ICT in adult education, the variables influencing this application and the strategies for a more effective application of ICT. These expositions shall announce to the commission, the reality with respect to the use of ICT, thus guiding her in future planning and implementation.
The Outcome of this study shall prompt the instructors to make a better use of the ICT thus improving their performance. This shall be so as findings of the study shall raise their consciousness to the efficacy of using ICT, and also highlighting the barriers and strategies for overcoming the barriers of effective application of ICT by the instructors. In Nigeria, the National Policy on Education is a national document guiding educational matters. This document gives a special role to the adult instructors towards the attainment of the national goals and objectives of adult education. This special role includes giving special services to facilitate the realization of the goals of adult education. The instructors shall benefit from this study as its findings shall prompt them into making effective use of ICT thus boosting their
In the adult educational process, the adult curriculum experts review the adult education curriculum occasionally; irrelevant contents
are discarded while noble and relevant ones are introduced into the adult education curriculum during this period. This is to keep in sync with the dynamic nature of the society. The adult curriculum experts would also benefit from this study as its outcome would provide them with the data that are very essential for evaluation and the modification arising thereof. Other learners and researchers at different levels shall not be left out in the benefits that shall accrue from the findings of this study. ICT being a relatively new field in the country has little empirical data for one to base a research on. Findings of this study shall therefore serve as a foundation on which many other researches can be built upon. The learners and researchers shall also reap from the factors that the study shall identify as hindrances to the use of ICT in adult education and the strategies for improvement.
Nevertheless, the Agency for Adult and Non-formal Education shall benefit from the findings of this study. The agency would get to know the situation on the ground with respect to the application of ICT in adult education programmes. This shall guide them in future planning of ICT policies for the agency.
The following research questions will guide the study:
1. What are the ICT facilities available for adult education programmes?
2. What is the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes
3. What are the implementation processes adopted in Adult Education programmes
4. What are the constraints to the utilization and implementation of ICT in Adult Education programmes in Cross River State.
5. What are the strategies for effective utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education?
Three two-tailed test of significance will be formulated to guide this study. These non directional hypotheses have been derived from the research questions, and shall be tested at alpha level of 05. They include the proposition that:
H1: There is no significant difference in the mean rating of instructors and learners on the ICT implementation process adopted in adult education programmes.
H2: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of instructors and learners on the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes.
H3: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of instructors and learners on the factors militating against effective utilization of ICTs in adult education progrommes.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study includes identifying the available ICT in adult education, the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education, factors necessary for effective strategies and utilization of ICT in adult education. Nevertheless, the study shall delimit itself to Cross Rivers State..