INFLUENCE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA CENTRAL, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA)
The study examine the influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on primary schools pupils on academic performance in Kwara state, Nigeria in Ifelodun Local Government of Kwara State. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effect of socio-economic status, and educational background of parents on the basic scholar’s academic performance in the above study area. Concerning methology, the researcher employed both primary and secondary data for the study. Secondary data for the study. Secondary data for the study was gotten from textbooks, research journals and the internet. The researcher used questionnaire for the collection of data from the respondents. A sample of 200 pupils from five (5) public and five (5) private primary schools were used for the study. Data was analysed using simple percentage, the mean and standard deviation correlation coefficient to analysis research questions and hypotheses respectively all the tests were conducted at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that socio-economic status of parents effects the performance of both the public and private primary schools pupils, but not so feasible in the later. Out of 200 pupils used for the study, majority asserted to this and the alternate hypothesis was accepted. Other findings from the study showed that there is a relation between pupils academic performance as well as parents educational background. The researcher recommended that various strategies should be put in place to reduce peers influence.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research Hypotheses 9
1.6Significance of the Study9
1.7 Scope of the Study 11
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Theoretical Framework 33
2.3 Empirical Study 36
2.4 Summary of Literature Review 41
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 43
3.2 Research Design 43
3.3 Population of the Study 44
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 44
3.5 Instrumentation 44
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 45
3.7 Method of Data Collection 46
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Presentation of Tables and Interpretation 47
4.2 Hypothesis Testing 53
4.3 Summary of Findings 58
4.4 Discussion of Findings 58
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary 62
5.2 Conclusion 63
5.3 Recommendation 63
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 64
1.1 Background of the Study
Education not only provides knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering right attitude and habits. According to Muhammed and Muhammed (2010) they are of the opinion that, cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to another through Education. The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents.
This is congruent with the common assertion by sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio-economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. What so ever affect the developmental stage of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parental status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so too does the nutrition of her young children “Parents of different occupational classes often have different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every families, rather they influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes.” (Rothestein, 2004). In line with the above assertion, Hill et al. (2004) had also argued that socio-economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete with their counterparts from high socio-economic background under the same academic environment.
Moreover, Smith, Fagan and Ulvund (2002) had asserted that significant predictor of intellectual performance at age of 8 years included parental socio-economic status (SES). In the same vein, other researchers had posited that parental SES could affect school children as to bring about flexibility to adjustment to the different school schedules (Guerin et al., 2001).The same view is shared by Machebe (2012), in her research, concluded that,parental socio-economic status could influence academic performance of their children at school. In a previous local finding in Nigeria, Oni (2007) and Omoegun (2007) had averred that there is significant difference between the rates of deviant behaviour among pupils from high and low socio-economic statuses.
The health status of the children which could also be traceable to parental socio-economic background can be another factor that can affect the academic performance of the pupils, Adewale (2002) had reported that in a Journal of Education and Practice rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and health problems are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered. This assertion is again hinged on nature of parental socio-economic background.
Schareider (2003) in his study counted school faulty condition to effective teaching and learning in schools. More and Lackney (1994) in their handbook on educational facilities concluded that physical setting has both direct and mediated efforts on social and achievement outcomes.
The foregoing discussion had established that socio-economic status and host of other factors relating to environment of pupils, such as educational background of parents, health status of pupils, parental occupation and family size could have effects on children academic achievement. It is against this background that this work is being undertaken to empirically investigate the possible effect of these factors on pupils’ academic achievement in selected schools in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government Area of Kwara State.
Environmental Factors is the aggregate of all internal and external conditions affecting the existence, growth and welfare of organisms. It is an influence an individual came in contact with after the hereditary has been through the gene plasma.
G. U. Anene explained that environment can be divided into physical, social and abstract environment. Physical environment is the objects or materials found in the home, school or community. It also includes the people like parents, siblings and peers (Anene, 2005).She also explained that the social environment is the social life, societies and club affecting the individual. Abstract environment is the reactions, feedback and the responses received on interactions with others. The author further explained that environment can also be classified as urban or rural environment.
The focus of this study is on the environmental factors affecting the academic performance of the pupils. This therefore, entails the objects, materials, parents, siblings, peers and social life that exists in the environment in which the pupils find himself/herself. All the variables in the environment that affect a pupil’s existence, behavior and performance constitute the environmental factors.
Academic Performance on the other hand is the outcome of education; it is the extent to which a pupil, teacher or institution has achieved the educational goals.
According to G. Bossaert, S. Doumen, E. Bugse and K. Verschuerenc (Bossaert, Doumen..., 2011) academic achievement is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment; however, there is a general agreement on how it is best tested. In some countries, the achievement of school is measured by the academic performance index.
O. C. Chukwudi (Chukwudi, 2013) discovered that individual differences in academic performance have been linked to differences in intelligence and personality. He explained that pupils with higher mental abilities as demonstrated by IQ test (quick learners) and those who are higher in conscientiousness (linked to effort and achievement motivation) tend to achieve highly in academic settings. Early academic achievement enhances later academic achievement.
However, a number of factors contribute to that. It has also been discovered that certain factors can either influence or hinder the academic performance of pupils at any level of education. Such factors emanating from the school environment, curriculum planning and implementation, siblings/Peer group influence, Environment e.g. parents, socialization patterns in the environment, location of the environment, modern gadgets at environment and so on. The target of this study is on environmental factors affecting the academic performance of pupils. The pupil’s environment can either accelerate or hinder a pupil’s academic performance.
C. Ajila and A. Otutola (Ajila, Otutola, 2000) stated that parent of all classes realized the importance of education. They also pointed out that different families create environment that influences children’s intellectual growth and educational motivation in different ways. The function of the family among others includes rearing, protecting and educating the children and such function can be performed in the environment, thus a environment is an essential agent of education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Experience has shown that among the public and private primary school’s pupils there exist some differences which influence pupils academic performance, such as some pupils being able to pay their school fees promptly, while others were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some pupils have problem with the provision of school uniform but others do not. Likewise, some pupils were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books, others were not, where as some pupils come to school properly feed, others are not. One then wonders whether influence of family background had played a role in these issues. The question that comes to mind therefore is “Can the environment under which learning is taking place in our schools lead to the attainment of the goals of education? More specifically, does school environment influence academic achievements?
In the light of this, the main issue of this research work is to find out if there exist in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government of Kwara State a relationship between socio-economic status of parents and pupils' academic performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status of parent and environmental factor on academic performance of pupils in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government of Kwara State. Specific objectives of the study include:
1. Whether economic status of the parents have influence on Pupils’ academic performance in Primary school?
2. Whether environmental factor influence the academic performance of pupils in primary schools
3. The level of academic performance of pupils in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State of Nigeria.
4. The significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State
5. The relationship between environmental factors and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelofun Local Government, Kwara State
6. The relationship among parental socio-economic status, environmental factors and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were answered in this study
1. Does economic status of the parents have influence on Pupils’ academic performance in Primary school?
2. Does environmental factor influence the academic performance of pupils in primary schools?
3. What is the level of academic performance of pupils in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government of Kwara State of Nigeria?
4. Is here any relationship between parental socio-economic status and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State?
5. Is there any relationship between environmental factors and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State?
6. Is there any relationship among parental socio-economic status, environmental factors and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested to guide this study;
1. There is no significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State
2. There is no significant relationship between environmental factors and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State
3. There is no significant relationship among parental socio-economic status, environmental factors and pupils’ academic performance in Ifelodun Local Government Local Government, Kwara State
1.6 Significance of Study
1. The work of this nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the consequence the family has on children and how such influence the child positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up there, in such a way that they will perform well academically.
2. Similarly, it is likely to encourage parents to make their children relatively comfortable in schools. This study also could aid children of various families to be aware and bear in mind with their parents in ability to provide them with all the necessary requirements in schools, and also sympathize with them in family problems and situations.
3. More so, educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition, the teachers would be aware that a cordial teacher parent relationship may in a way improve the influence of family background on the academic performance of a child in school.
4. The research of this nature is likely to help the local, state, nation and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the recommendations and implementation will help produce youths who would be better leaders of tomorrow.
5. Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.
1.7 Scope of the Study
It would be much demanding to undertake a complete study of the influence of socio-economic status of parent and environmental factors on the academic performance of pupils in Ifelodun Local Government local government of Kwara State and due to logistic constraint on the researcher, only 20 school will be sampled, sampled school are selected based on their metropolitan population characteristics.
The study is likely to be confined to primary schools (Primary six) pupils of the selected schools. This is because (Primary six) is the beginning of primary school class. If family background affects pupils in (primary six), it is assumed that likely to affect their performances in primary school certificate examinations and even worst in their primary school academic performance.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
As words may mean differently in different contexts, the following definitions are given as the words used as intended to be understood for the purpose of this study.
FAMILY: Is a unit comprising of husband, wife and children.
FAMILY SIZE: The number of people in the family.
FAMILY SYSTEM: This includes monogamy and may be nuclear or extended family.
ENVIRONMENT: This refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral processes conducive to learning.
EDUCATIONAL UPBRINGING: This refers to education of children and how they perform in academics when subjected to test or examination. EDUCATIONAL STATUS: This term is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can be institutionalized as a school or college.
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Person’s trade, vocation or principal means of earning living.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: This refers to position of recognition which one finds him in the society. Such a position may not be hereditary but acquired through personal efforts like education, wealth, occupation and social class.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This refers to the pupils’ achievement, scores within the class and his position relative to all those subjected the same test.
EFFECTS: the result or outcome of anything be it positive or negative.
HOME SITUATION: This refers to prevailing atmosphere in the home whether violent, resentful or in disarray.
PARENTAL ATTITUDE: Parents disposition to respond in a characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up.
SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT: These are the facilities, learning materials made available to the study as well as the conduciveness of the school to enhance or inhibit learning..