PREVALENCE AND PATTERNS OF PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE USE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN DALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KANO STATE, NIGERIA
The study was designed to determine the prevalence and patterns of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Dala Local Government Area (LGA), Kano State Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A simple random sampling procedure was used to select two Secondary Schools out of the ten Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State. Both Schools have a combined population of 2293 students made up of 1202 boys and 1096 girls. The two Schools sample were Government Secondary School Kurna Asabe for boys and Government Senior Secondary School Kuka bulukiya for girls. The instrument for data collection was a WHO Youth Drug Survey (WHOYDSQ) adapted questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was established using a test re-test and computed using Pearson Moment Correlation. A coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. Data generated were subjected to descriptive statistics and analyzed using Chi-square. The prevalence of psychoactive substance use among Government Senior Secondary School in Dala LGA, of Kano State shows that the majority (91.1%) of the respondents have been using psychoactive substances. The commonest substances used were kola nut (87.4%), tobacco (15%), and cannabis (5.5%). more than half of the users of each of the substances take it occasionally, using them on one to five days in a month except kola nut taken on twenty or more days in a month. They include male (52.9%), female (47.1%). The majority (68.1%) of the respondents were between 18-20 years. Most of the respondents who use psychoactive substances were introduced by their friends (60.6%), family (27.6%), and nobody (5.7%). Most (27.9%) first use kola nut at the age less than 10 years, alcoholic beverages at the age of 11-12years (25.6%) while others like tobacco, cannabis at 19-and above years (38.3%). Major reasons for using psychoactive substances include being sociable (25.4%) and for enjoyment (24.4%). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between Males and females in psychoactive substance use. The pattern of use is dependent on the type of psychoactive substances (p < 0.05). Also, the psychoactive substances use based on lifetime use is dependent on the age at first use (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School students is high as such Government, Parents and Teachers need to join hands and address the problems.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Psychoactive Substance use and dependence cause a significant burden to individuals and societies throughout the world. The World Health Report (2010) indicated that 8.9% of the total burden of disease comes from the use of psychoactive substances. The report showed that tobacco accounted for 4.1%, alcohol 4%, and illicit drugs 0.8% of the burden of disease in 2010. Much of the burden attributable to substance use and dependence is the result of a wide variety of health and social problems. Data from the (World Health Organization, 2011) show large-scale seizures of cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and amphetamine-type stimulants in different parts of the world. Availability of cocaine, heroin, and cannabis depends on the level of cultivation in source countries and on the success or failure of trafficking organizations. However, even with increased levels of law enforcement activities, there always seems to be enough available to users. According to (UNODC, 2011) estimates show that about 200 million people make illicit use of one type of illicit substance or another.
Psychoactive substance use is a social problem that has spread and increased rapidly in educational institutions especially among secondary school students (Neeraja, 2011). This social problem is considered an issue of serious concern as it adversely affects the lives and performance of students involved as well as the harmonious functioning of the entire structure of the society. The use of psychoactive drugs and other associated problems are inimical to the survival and effective functioning of human societies. A significant number of untimely deaths and accidents have been linked to the activities of persons under the influence of one psychoactive drug or the other (Shelly, 2010).
Drug abuse is viewed by different authorities in various forms. Neeraja (2011) defined substance abuse as the dependence on a drug or other chemical substances leading to the effect that is detrimental to the individual’s physical and mental health or the welfare of others. According to Smelzer, Bare, Hinkle, and Cheever (2008) substance abuse is a maladaptive pattern of drug use that causes physical and emotional harm with the potential for disruption of daily life. From these definitions, it can be deduced that substance abuse is the misuse of one or more drugs that could be prescribed by a health practitioner with the intention to alter the way one feels, thinks, or behaves, and it is associated with consequences which include physical and emotional harm to the person.
The African Symposium (2010) viewed substance abuse as the improper use or application of drugs by a person without proper knowledge of the drugs and without due prescription from a qualified medical practitioner. This definition focuses on psychoactive drugs. All drugs can be abused to an extent that it turns into addiction when the drug user is unable to stop the use of the drugs despite the harmful effects on the user’s social, personal, and economic lives. The problem of substance abuse is so grave that though it was originally conceived as the problem of a ‘select few’, it has extended beyond the usual characteristics of abusers being males, adults, and urban-based people, to now include females, youngsters, and rural dwellers (Rocha, 2009). These abusers erroneously believe that drugs enhance their performance, put them in good mood, etc. The accompanying problems of this act constitute a major threat to the wellbeing of the society (Ajala, 2009).
The youths in Nigeria like many countries of the world are increasingly developing an addiction to psychoactive substances. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA, 2011) collected drug use and abuse data from schools, records of patients admitted at mental health institutions for drug problems, and interview of persons arrested for drug offences. The result showed that youths constitute the high-risk group for drug trafficking and abuse. Friends and schoolmates account for about 90% of the source of influence of the use and abuse of various psychoactive substances. In Nigeria, alcohol and cigarette are legal substances but, the two have been discovered to cause physical damage to human bodies. It has been reported that smoking tobacco causes 90.0% of lung cancer, 30.0% of all cancers, and 80.0% of other chronic lung diseases (Sale 2008). Apart from these health implications, according to Stephen (2010), alcohol and cigarette are said to be “gateway drugs” to other more potent psychoactive drugs like marijuana, heroin, and cocaine..