The focal point of this study is to known the “challenges on the development of Almajiri system of education in Birnin Kebbi metropolis” . in the case of this research the work is arranged in five chapters chapter one deal with the background of the study, statement of research problems, objectives of study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and delimitations, operational definition of terms, chapter deal with Review of related literature, introduction, conceptual frameworks, philosophy of Almajiri system of education, Historical development of Almajiri system of education, challenges on the development of Almajiri system of education in Birnin Kebbi metropolis problems of Almajiri education, review of related empirical and the summary and uniqueness of the  study.  Chapter three deal with the research methodology, introduction research design, population sample and the sampling techniques, research instrument validity of instrument, reliability of instrument, method of data collection, method of Data analysis, chapter deal with the data analysis and the presentation of finding while chapter five dealt with summary, conclusion, recommendation.


Title page i 

Approval/certification page ii 

Dedication iii 

Acknowledgements iv 

Table of Contents v 

Abstract viii 



Background of the Study1

Statement of Problems3

Objectives of Study6

Research Questions                                                                  7 

1.5 Significance of the Study 7

Scope and the Limitation8

Operational Definition of Terms9

CHAPTER TWO (Review of Related Literature)


Conceptual Framework12

Historical development of Almajiri system of

Education 16

Philosophy of Almajiri Education19

Problem of Almajiri education23

Review of Related Empirical Studies25

Summary and Uniqueness of study29


Research Methodology


Research Design31


Sample and Sampling Techniques32

Research Instrument33

Validity of Research instrument33

Reliability of research instrument33

Method of Data Collection34

Method of Data Analysis35


4.1 Data Analysis and the presentation of finding 36


Summary/Conclusion and Suggestion45


References 54



Almajiri refers to a person who migrates from  the luxury of his home to other place or to popular teaching in the quest for Islamic knowledge. It is hinged on the Islamic concept of migration which is widely practiced especially when acquisition of knowledge at home is either inconvenient or insufficient. Imam Shafi’I is the greatest proponent of migration for seeking knowledge which he said is nothing unless it is mind and transported away form its soil. He summarized everything in two verses. Emigrate from your home in quest of excellence, good manners and friendship with famous. Shafi’I himself was born in Gaza. He travelled almost the entire middle east seeking in knowledge until finally he settles in Egypt.

With the coming of Islam to Hausa land in 14th century. Qur’anic education started and wage of Sokoto jihad was

carried out in the early 19th Century. Qur’anic  school  in Hausa land are usually located in mosque or the urban centers than the rural areas. Generally there are two types of qur’anic teachers stay in one place and educate the children in the locality in which they live.

In this system of learning Qur’anic schools of Almajiri are usually entrusted in the care of learned person “Malam” were it is hoped that they would have the necessary concentration and learning atmosphere. Abraham and Canhan (1978) noted that toward the end of 19th century when movement of people in the northern Nigeria in particular became less dangerous.

Alamin (1987) emphasis the Islamic learning started in the “Malam” settlement were the student and their teachers gathered to make Qur’anic lessons. When the british conquered Sokoto in the year 1903 and subsequently introduce the western types of education, Qur’anic schools continued even through the colonial government deal not to finance such schools.

The public continues to support the Qur’anic education because of its religious and moral importance, even after independence the Qur’anic school were not receiving adequate government assistance, so that the pupils and the teachers had to depend on their efforts.  Thus  in  the  case  of the Almajiri school, the teacher mostly depend on Wednesday fees which is called (Kudin narba) and also some depend on Saturday  fees  which  is  called (Kudin  assabar) from the  parent of the  inhabitants pupils, while  the  inigrates so help Malams in serving the domestically  at  you  area  of study world general views to continental  level,  to  national level, to state level, and your specific place of conducting the research.


The fall of the Almajiri education system in 1904, the British invaded and colonized the northern Nigeria territories and took central of the treasury. They  killed  and  disposed those emirs who resisted the foreign rule, while  those  who were traditional rules used only for indirect rule. The British

also refused to recognize the Almajir education system as an important education system and deliberately abolished its state funding arguing that, they were mere religious schools. Book (meaning western education) was introduced and found instead.

With loss of support of support  from  the  government and the helpless  emirs,  the  almajiri  system  thus  collapsed like a pile of cards. The  responsibility  of  the  almajiri  was taken over by the local scholars who deemed it a moral and religious duty to educate these pupil for the sake of Allah. Although there was scarcity of founds and over whelming number of pupils of cater to for the system  continued  to flourish with the support of the immediate community and begging was still not a norm instead they restored to worsen by the belief that the western education (Boko) was of the Christians European origin and therefore anti-Islamic.   It bred the fear that a child with western belief  will eventually lose his Islamic identity and embrace vices that negates the values and principles of Islamic as alcoholism. Fornication,

semi naked dressing, partying abandoning the   prayer, fasting, zakat e.t.c this predicament I often reflected in the grievance vented out at  those  attending the  western  schools as echoed in a popular Almajiri song “Dan Makarantar Bokoko bakaratu ba Sallah, sai Yawan Zagin   Malam meaning’ oh student of  western education, you  do not  learn, the Qur’an and you do not pray, except to be mocking the teacher”.

The pupils now left almajiri together with their malam’s having no financial support resorted to beginning and other manial jobs for survival. Shehu (2003) asserts that almajiranci was a form of child abuse because it exposed the children to labour work at tender age. Normally children between to age of seven and twenty even below their malam’s cannot feed nor promade the necessities of life for them. Therefore, they embark on begging  or labour work in order to survive or earn their living. Inadabawa (1992) observed that the concept of culmajiri has undergone some

transformation overtime in the twentieth century; it is seen as ‘bara’ that is (begging) by the Qur’anic school pupils.


The broad objectives of this study is to examine the factors (social economic, legal and cultural) affecting the development of almajiri system of education in Birnin Kebbi metropolis.

(1) To find out parent of the pupils provides foods, housing accommodation and medical care and other basic need for their children.

(2) To identify the traditional Qur’anic school exposes the children to child abuse and juvenile delinquencies or petty crimes.

(3) To identify the traditional Qur’anic school exposes the children to child abuse and juvenile delinquencies or petty crimes.

(4) To find out whether food and other basic needs are considered the greatest challenges of the Qur’anic school.

(5) To find out whether the rich Muslims in our society gives out Zakat to the poor.


The following research questions were generated to guide the conduct of study.

1. Does parent of the pupils provide foods, housing accommodation and medical care and other basic needs for their children?

2. Does child begging in our society attributed to the Qur’anic school pupils only?

3. Does the traditional Qur’anic school exposes the children to child abuse and juvenile delinquencies or petty crimes?

4. Does rich Muslim in our society give out Zakat to the poor?

5. Does lack of food and other basic needs consider the greatest problem of the Qur’anic school?


This research will be significance in many ways; it will provide information on the  almajiri  pupils  and  their malams as how to solve their problems without booking outside  for help. The significance of this study is from the  fact hat it will also provide information on the almajiri system of education and their socio-economic contributions to the cities development of the Nigeria.  The  Almajiris  can  go  back  to their homes and made to engage in other meaningful ventures, because the problem of  almajiri  is  a  concerned  to all, be it  as not  only  embarrassing  to  the  socio-political  of the north, but also to the image of Islam and own leaders as whole. The outcomes of this project will be significance.


This research work will cover the area of challenge on the development of Almajiri system of education in Birnin

Kebbi metropolis. It represents the  scope  of  the  research work.

It is limited to some selected Islamiyya schools in Birnin Kebbi local government:

a Makarantar Malam Umar Malisa Rafin Atiku.

b- Makarantar malam Umar Chiye Birnin Kebbi

c- Makarantar Malam Bala Sarkin aiki Makerargandu.

The schools are so selected to enable for a wider coverage of research study.


Originally, the word “almajiri” was borrowed Ed from the Arabic word “al Muhajirun” which means “the emigrants”. In Hausa language, the word “al-majiri” is various used to mean a student, a beggar or destitute and more often then not, it is used to refer specifically to young person who immigrate from their town and village to mostly urban centers in search of Qur’anic/Islamic knowledge.

A Qur’anic school refers to a non-formal and less structural types of Islamic educational Institution commonly referred to a “Makarantar Allo  “or  Tsangaya”  or  “ile-kewu”.  It  is  the basic or elementary level of the  Islamic  education  system. Some Qur’anic school, such as the neigbourhood schools are sedentary with some of the pupils attending primary schools as well, while some  others  which  teachers  (Malam’s)  and their pupils (almajiri) are itinerant.

Qur’anic schools are found in all part of Nigeria. Where Muslim live. But the more traditional Qur’anic are more prevalent in the northern states, especially in rural and sub urban areas of the country. The curriculum of Qur’anic schools is very narrow and limited to the reading and memorization of the Qur’an. Subjects on the meaning of the Qur’an, hadith, fiqh and others are found in the il and Islamiyyah schools.



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