PERCEPTION OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GOVERNMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The main aim of this study was to find the perception of teachers and students of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Three specific purposes and three corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study. The literatures related to this study were reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical studies. The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The population of the study comprised 15,675 students and 15 secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 secondary schools students. The instrument used to obtain information was a structured questionnaire. The instrument used was validated by three lecturers in the school of Education Godfrey Okoye University Enugu. Therefore, the findings of the study showed that lack of funding for equipping information communication technology facilities in secondary school have been a problem for the government to equip all the necessary information communication technology facilities needed by the secondary schools for effective teaching and learning. Lack of skilled technical workers is another problem that secondary schools are facing due to lack of funding to take them on train them on how to handle the information communication technology facilities. Based on these, the study recommended that ICT equipment and facilities should be made available to all technical colleges. Government should encourage and put in place policies to attract international codes and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to invest on ICT related projects in secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 7
Research Questions 7
Significance of the Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework 10
Theoretical Framework- 18
Empirical Studies 21
Summary of the Literature Reviewed 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 30
Area of Study 31
Population of the Study 31
Sample and Sampling Techniques 31
Instrument for Data Collection 32
Validation of the Instruments 32
Reliability of the Instrument 32
Method of Data Collection33
Method of Data Analysis 33
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 35
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Findings 39
Educational Implications of the Findings 42
Limitation of the Study 43
Suggestions for further Study 43
Summary of the Study 45
Appendix (questionnaire) 52
Background to the Study
ICT is an acronym that stands for information communication technology. However, apart from explaining an acronym, there is not a universally accepted definition of ICT; this is because the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis. It is difficult to keep up with the changes- they happen so fast (Wikipedia ICT_Education) James (2010). A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals, businesses and organization use information. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. Such as personal computer, digital television, email, robots. So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data Henry (2011).
Government as an academic subject of study in secondary school education is synonymous with politics, political and civic education. Politics as a concept has a strong influence on the well being of the citizen and the stability of a country. In Nigeria, a pervasive atmosphere of inconsistency in government policies and absence of a political culture tend to prevail most of the time. This atmosphere of uncertainty has led to constant friction within the political system and this in essence led to political instability, a situation which does not create room for meaningful development. It becomes imperative that young generations of students in secondary schools as future leaders of the nation should, as a matter of urgency, be given a through political education
with the aim of awakening in them a spirit of political consciousness that will lead to high sense of loyalty, patriotism and commitment to the nation’s goals Herry (2013).
Hence, the study of government in secondary schools can be a useful vehicle for fostering political consciousness if only our political leaders, policy makers and educational agencies can formulate a curriculum that will help in molding the youths to cultivate a positive attitude and the understanding of the Nigeria Political system. The emergence of politically conscious youths in Nigeria will make for wise use of their political rights by the citizenry by voting into power, leaders that will be politically and economically vibrant. In line with the above, it is imperative that the youths in secondary schools as leaders of tomorrow should understand the rudiment of our political systems to give them the insight into how these different political systems operate. Therefore, no
effort should be spared in teaching the future leaders in such a way that will make them more interested in the study of government, which is the only way to know the rules of the game of politics Ifeanyi (2010).
Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become key tools and had a revolution impact on how we see the world and how we live. Today, the place of ICTs in education and the world in general cannot be undermined. Modern day businesses are conducted and facilitated through the use of telephones, fax machines and computer communication networks through the internet. This phenomenon has given birth to the contemporary ecommerce, e-government, e-medicine, e-banking and education among others.
According to Bandele (2006), ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, internet and other tele-communication technology in every aspect of human endeavour. The author posited that ICT is a simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as the super highway through which formation is transmitted and shared by people all over the world. Ozoji in Jimoh (2007) defined ICT as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instruction etc) for use, by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephone. Ofodu (2007) also refer to ICT as electronic or computerized devices, assisted by human and interactive materials that can be used for a wide range of teaching and learning as well as for personal use. From these definitions, ICT could therefore be defined as processing and sharing of information using all kinds of electronic device, an umbrella that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and in particular developed countries; ICT has made a very profound and remarkable impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning research in the educational institutions.
Information and communication technology has the potentials to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skill; to motivate and engage students in learning to help relate school experiences to work practices; to help create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school; to strengthen teaching and to provide opportunities for connection between the school and the world. Aribisala (2006) posited that ICTs are increasingly playing an important role in organisations and in society’s ability to produce access, adopt and apply information. They are however being heralded as the tools for the post-industrial age and the foundations for a knowledge economy due to their ability to facilitate the transfer and acquisition of knowledge. Stressing the importance of the use of ICT in schools, Olurunsola (2007) posited that through ICT, educational needs have been met; it changes the needs of education as well as the potential processes. Message can be communicated through the e-mail, telex or telephones particularly the mobile ones. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid teleological, social, political and economic transformation, which has eventuated in a network society organized around ICT (Yusuf, 2015). The author posited that ICT is an indispensable part of educational administration as its application makes institutions more efficient and productive, thereby engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilitate teachers’ pedagogical activities. For instance, e-learning is becoming one of the most common means of using ICT to provide education to students both on and off campus by means of teaching online offered via web-based systems.
Statement of the Problem
The information technology revolution especially in the area of internet and computer technology has heralded the development and implementation of new and innovative curriculum delivery strategy in the education sector. Oye, (2012) emphasized that the growth in internet technology and its application in education have brought great transformation which has made teaching and learning less burdensome, effective and result oriented by providing avenue for sharing idea and information. Well researched and packaged teaching materials can be prepared by teachers and delivered to students using e-learning devices such as power point presentation, video tutorials, e-books, computer based training and web based training (Selwyn, 2011).
The teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter is the problem, Unavailability of qualified ICTs teachers are part of the problem; Lack of ICTs and their accessories constitute the problems, Lack of teaching aids and computer textbooks militate against the effective teaching learning. Among the militating factors hindering the effect of ICT on students academic performance, are a lot of capital investment to buy hardware’s, software’s and standby generators for the school. Lack of search skills, automation at infancy level, epileptic power supply, and technical knowhow are some of the problem encountered by the teachers in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area, and to find out; what the possible solutions of the challenges will be like.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Specifically the study intends to:
i. determine the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of government in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
ii. ascertain the perception of teachers and students in use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
iii. identify the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
i. What are the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of government in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?
ii. What are the perception of teachers and students in use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?
iii. What are the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study will benefit various educational stakeholders. They include teachers, curriculum planners, stakeholder, students.
It would be useful to students in determining the many opportunities the ICT technology provides in their academic lives.
Teachers would be guided on how integrating ICT technology will create a richer environment for teaching and learning. The mobile phone companies would be more informed and therefore invest in providing mobile phone technologies to schools with internet connectivity and smart phones at a reduced price.
Curriculum planners and policy makers would be aware of the numerous possibilities of using mobile phone technologies in learning, so as to assist in implementing and designing activities to support the various learning styles.
The findings of this study would also complement other studies and provide appropriate information for content developers and mobile learning developers in designing mobile phone applications for learning. This research would contribute to the body of educational research in that it explores student’s academic performance with multiple indicators of learning, which is satisfaction, learning style and performance.
The research may provide literature for educational researchers so as to add more information on innovative uses of mobile phone technologies to enhance educational experiences of students.
Scope of the Study
This study covers the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Geographically, the study will cover all the government secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area..