ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN COMMERCE
TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page………………..iCertification……………iiDedication………………iiiAcknowledgment……….ivTable of content………vii
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study1.2 Statement of the Problem1.3 Purpose of the Study1.4 Significance of the Study1.5 Research Questions1.6 Research Hypotheses1.7 Delimitation of the Study1.8 Basic Assumptions of the Study1.9 Limitation of the Study
CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1Theoretical Framework2.2 Conceptual Framework2.2.1 The Concept of Commerce2.2.2 Concept of Environment2.2.3 Concept of School Environment2.2.4 Concept of Public Secondary Schools2.2.5 Urban – Rural School Location and Academic Performance of Students2.2.6 Teacher – Students Relationship and Academic Performance of Students2.2.7 Library Services and Academic Performance of students2.2.8 School Facilities and Academic Performance of Students2.3 Review of Related Empirical Study2.4 Summary of Review of Literature
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHOD3.1 Design of the Study 3.2 Area of the Study3.3 Population of the Study3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique3.5 Instrumentation3.5.1 Validation of the Research Instrument3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument3.6 Method of Data Collection3.7 Method of Data Analysis3.7.1 Decision Rule
CHAPTER FOURDATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS4.1 Answering of Research Questions 4.1.1 Research Question 14.1.2 Research Question 24.1.3 Research Question 34.1.4 Research Question 44.2 Hypotheses Testing 4.2.1 Hypothesis 14.2.2 Hypothesis 24.2.3 Hypothesis 34.2.4 Hypothesis 44.3 Findings of the Study4.4 Discussion of Findings4.4.1 The Difference in Student’s Academic Performance Based on School Location4.4.2 The Difference in Students’ Academic Performance Based on Teacher- Student Relation4.4.3 The Difference in Students’ Academic Performance Based on Library Services4.4.4 The Difference in Students’ Academic Performance Based on School Facilities
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 Summary of the Study5.2 Conclusion of the Study5.3 Recommendations5.4 Suggestions for Further StudiesREFERENCESAPPENDICES
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study
Environmental influence before now has not been considered as one of the factors that affect academic performance in secondary schools hence it has little or no attention in educational discourse and consideration. But over the past decade, remarkable studies have indicated a correlation between the environment and academic performance of students. Environment plays a major role in the life of every individual whether students, teachers, employer or employee. Though some people are yet to believe that environment brings about better performance. While reviewing the article of Udoh "The Environmental Health Problems in Nigerian Schools", Orlu (2013) identified some unhealthy practices like: siting of schools, inadequate facilities, poor ventilation etc. that may adversely affect the health of students and teachers, which will in turn reflect on students’ academic performance.Environment is a very important factor in achievement of goal of any educational programme. People acquire most of their knowledge through the interaction with facilities provided in the environment for learning. Also learning is influenced by the environment people are exposed to and the facilities provided in such environment lead to experience. The physical appearance and general condition of school physical facilities are the striking basis upon which many parents and friends of any educational institution make initial judgment about the quality of what goes on in the school. They are often turned off by dilapidated school blocks with sinking roofs and broken walls, bushy lawn and overgrown hedges. Also are profane writings on walls, littered lawns and path ways. Finally, the school physical environment is like a mirror eflecting the image of a school and through it the public decide whether or not to associate with the particular school (Mgbodile 2004).It is now certain that most of secondary school products cannot gain admission into federal universities or university of their choice due to poor performance in the placement examination into these schools. This poor performance may be attributed to poor learning environment especially in the following areas: school location, teacher-student relationship, library services, and school facilities.A school could be located in the urban or rural area. Rural schools are generally inferior to urban schools as schools in rural areas lacked human and material resources needed for success at school. The location of school whether urban or rural affects a child’s ability to study and perform at the level expected of him. Also differences in location imply differences in the existence of demographic and socio-economic parameters of the school. As stated by Imoagene (1988) in Akubue and Ifelunni (2006) that because of urban involvement, students in urban schools perform better than those in rural schools in language learning. The reason they gave include the fact that rural students have limited access to reading materials, inadequate reading culture and insufficient graduate teachers in rural schools.Therefore, the location of school has tremendous influence on children’s academic performance.The school library is a room or building in a school where books, magazines, journals, periodicals, cassettes, computers among others are kept for student’s use. In other words, it is the central laboratory of the whole school, where all books in all subject areas, taught in the school and non-book materials are stocked. Dike(2001) sees school library as a learning laboratory par excellence where learners find the world of knowledge, interact directly with resources, acquire information and develop research skill for life long learning.The objective of the school library is to serve the school’s need and to make possible the purpose and methods of education which the school undertakes. The school library enables the students to look to new ways of learning.School facilities refer to inputs which ease the operation of academic activities. They include desks, chairs, blackboards, dustbins, teaching aids, typewriters, computers generators, and calculators and so on. School facilities according to Ehiametalor (2001) are operational inputs of every instructional programme. They are material resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning in schools. The quality and quantity of school facilities enhance the quality of teaching and learning as well as effective school management (Ojedele, 2003).Hence it is pertinent to critically look at the environmental factors that influences academic performance of students of public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area, measures that can help improve them and make some recommendation because at the very heart of educational mission is the goal of improving academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the ProblemThe problem under study has to do with poor performance of students in Commerce in public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The establishment of government schools/community schools has resulted in a situation where many schools were more favoured in terms of the provision of learning resources and enriched environment than others. It has been very difficult if not impossible for government to standardize the school environment. Thus the environment varies from school to school. Some schools have adequate facilities which include desks, chairs, blackboards, dustbins, teaching aids, typewriters, computers, generators, latest textbooks, good administrative management, qualified teachers as well as good classroom environment. While others have little or none of these resources. It is because of this that (Ojedele, 2003) pointed out that the quality and quantity of school facilities enhance the quality of teaching and learning as well as effective school management. This study was therefore prompted by the need to study the Environmental Influence on all the variables and Students Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of school environment on the academic performance of students of public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.Specifically the study intended to:1. Find out the extent school location influence students academic performance in Commerce. 2. Determine how teachers-students relationships influence students’ academic performance in Commerce.3. Determine the extent the library services influence academic performance of students of public secondary schools.4. Ascertain the extents the school facilities influence students’ academic performance in Commerce.
1.4 Significance of the StudyThe findings from this study would be of immense benefits to the government, teachers, parents, as well as student researchers.The findings will help the teachers or the policy makers in formulating effective planning and implementation of policies and programmes for improved school academic activities.The result of the study will help parents and government contribute to the provision of conducive learning environment in public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.The study will also be relevant to educators and students researchers as it will provide a basis for further research on this topic.
1.5 Research QuestionsThe following research questions were proposed.1. To what extent does school location influence students’ academic performance in Commerce.2. To what extent does teachers-students relations influence students academic performance in Commerce.3. To what extent does the library services influence students’ academic performance in Commerce.4. To what extent do the school facilities influence students’ academic performance in Commerce.
1.6 Research HypothesesThe following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study;1. There is no significant difference in students academic performance in Commerce based on school location.2. There is no significant difference in students academic performance in Commerce based on teachers-students relations.3. There is no significant difference in students academic performance in Commerce based on library services.4. There is no significant difference in students academic performance in Commerce based on school facilities.
1.7 Delimitation of the StudyThe study was delimited to senior secondary two students in public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, which the researcher hails from. It was also delimited to the relationship between Environmental Influence and academic performance of Commerce students. Finally, the study was delimited to four Environmental Variables.
1.8 Basic Assumptions of the StudyThe following assumptions were made in the study;1. Students in senior secondary schools have the ability to study Commerce.2. The responses of each of the respondent are the reflection of true feeling of the Students and these are considered valid and reliable.3. All the students are at the same learning level.
1.9 Limitation of the Study Due to financial constraint, the study was carried out within Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. While in the course of carrying out this research, time and dearth of materials was limited because it was centre in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria..