This project examined Academic Practices of Public and Private Senior Secondary School Students in Lagos State Education District V. The objectives of this study were to: investigate the academic practices of both public and private senior secondary schools as it affects students’ academic performance. Also, to evaluate the sign relationship between school management and best academic practices.

Based on these objectives, data were sourced from both primary and secondary methods. The primary source involved questionnaire and interview methods; while the secondary sources took on relevant documents, articles in journals, text books and relevant publication, as well as computer search through the Internet. Out of the one hundred (100) questionnaires distributed, eight (8) of them were either not completely or correctly filled, bringing the total to ninety-two (92). With the aid of chi-square statistical method, the findings showed that: Academic practices have significant effect on students’ academic performance. Also, there is significant relationship between school management and best academic practices. That, there is significant difference between academic practice in public and private schools.

This work recommended that for best academic practices to be practiced in this school, government officials/supervisors should be sent to secondary schools in other to checkmate the activities of these schools and eradicate the problem of created by schools that engage low standard practice of academics in their schools.




1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Limitation of Study

1.9       Definition of Operational Terms



2.1       Quality of Education in Education District V

2.2       Quality and Conducive Learning Environments

2.3       Quality of School Facilities

2.4       Class size and Student’s Academic Achievement

2.5       Attitude of Students to Teaching and Learning Process of Both Private and Secondary Schools

2.6       Academic Performance of Students in Education District V

2.7       Teachers’ Effectiveness and Learning Outcome

2.8       Availability of Instructional Materials and Academic Achievement

2.9       Factors Affecting Improvisation of Instructional Materials

2.10    Overview of Guidance and Counselling Administration in Nigeria

2.11    Conduct of Examinations in Education District V

2.12    Examination Malpractices

2.13    Review of Performance of Students in Education District V between 2005 till 2011

2.14    Appraisal of Literature Review



3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population of the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.4 Research instrument

3.5 Method of Data Collection

3.6 Administration of the Questionnaire

3.7 Validity of the Instrument

3.8 Reliability of the Instrument

3.9 Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

4.2       Testing of Hypotheses

4.3       Hypothesis Two

4.4       Hypothesis Three



5.1       Discussion of Results

5.2       Summary of Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations




1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the instrument a society uses to equip its people to live productive public and full personal lives according to their talent and interest. The educational system must be such that gifted individuals have full opportunity to develop their skills; it must give scope for the training of a leader and at the same time provide for the development of all the vocational abilities needed for the creation of a progressive and democratic society.

The quality of education that is imparted to the youth and the precedence given to education largely contributes to attitude formation of the youths. So whatever kind of seed sown in the classroom; the manner in which it is nurtured and the strength which it imbibes in its various stages of growth will all determine the harvest that the nation will reap in the form of its educated youth coming out of the schools, colleges and universities. The imprints of these institutions of learning will become indelible marks clearly visible in all fields of the national life; be it a clerk in an office, a soldier in the battle field, a school master in a village school, a University Professor, a bureaucrat running the administration in a seat of power. This great impact of education on the national character is understandable once it is recognised, both the short term as well as long term power education wields over all who go through its process. Historical evidence proves that nations were made or unmade, battles lost and won, revolution wrought, so much so that entire empires collapsed or emerged due to the educational systems of various peoples of the World. Ancient Greece and Rome at the peak of their political glory were also the seats of learning and a source of intellectual guidance and inspiration for the entire known world, but when intellectual decadence struck, it attacked the very fabric of society and Greece and Rome were no more (Smith, 2007).

Rapid expansion of the Nigerian educational system at all levels; compounded by rapid policy changes and the shrinking economy have constituted constraints to educational practice and development in the country. The economic recession that has extended to social services including education. Hence, a series of disparities now exist in the educational system. Such disparities include disparity between urban and rural schools, between schools owned and controlled by the Federal Government and those owned and controlled by the States and private agencies, gaps between male and female enrolments and between admission figures and available teaching resources (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1996).

Lawal (2003), therefore posited that after two decades of operating the National Policy on Education, ‘the educational system in Nigeria can only be said to be in crisis’. He added that unlike other developing nations like Ghana and South Africa, Nigeria is experiencing a downturn in the education sector as a result of leadership problems in the Nigerian government in providing adequate measures, policy and funding of the education sector over the years.

However, these factors have militated against the efficient best academic practices over the years. There is therefore urgent need for government intervention in the practice of education in Lagos State both in the public and private schools. Nevertheless, the attention of government and major stakeholders in the educational sector is drawn to the relevance of quality education/academic practice which is a core in breeding an elite society of genius for successful growth and development of any economy, most especially developing countries such as Nigeria. Also, it is bedrock for successful academic achievement and high student performance.

1.2 Statement of Problem

In recent times there has been increase inefficiency in the academic practices of both private and public schools. The problem has however created a loophole in the educational sector especially in Lagos State, recent studies has shown that the basic input for best academic practices are lacking in Lagos State, this may include improper funding of the education sector due to resource allocation to the education sector which resulted in the lack of infrastructural facilities in schools and the record has been a major bottleneck, and a hindrance to conducive learning environment. Furthermore, inefficiency and ineffectiveness in school organisation and management, unavailability of school instructional materials, examination malpractices has been plaguing the quality of academic practice in Lagos State. All these and many more are consequential factors militating against successful/quality academic practice in Lagos State, especially in Education District V.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

As a result of the highlighted problems above on the academic practice of public and private secondary schools in Lagos State with reference to Education District V, there is a need to tackle these problems by stating in clear terms the purpose of this study, which would therefore be to analyze the various academic practices engaged by both public and private secondary schools in Education District V of Lagos State. The research work also seeks to: Investigate the academic practices of both public and private senior secondary schools as it affects students’ academic performance. Evaluate the significant relationship between school management and best academic practices.

Determine the significant difference between academic practices of public and private secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated for this study in order to guide the research:

Does academic practice of schools have any significant effect on student’s academic performance? Is there any significant relationship between school management and best academic practices? What are the significant differences between academic practice in public and private secondary schools.

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated for the purpose of this study

H02      Academic practices have no significant effect on students’ academic performance.

H02        There is no significant difference between management and best academic practices There is no significant difference between academic practice in public and private schools.

1.6       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will help students; school administrators and educational stakeholder in the country have an understanding of the lapses in the academic practices of senior secondary schools in Lagos State, especially in Education District V.

The study will go a long way in bringing to bear the relevance of best practices in the educational system in ensuring high performance of students considering the provisions of conducive learning environment.

Furthermore, this study will serve as in-depth material for school administrators and education stakeholders in the provision of all necessary factors that would create an enabling environment in the proper conduct and practice of academics.

1.7       Scope of the Study

The study will amongst others cover study on the academic practices of public and private senior secondary schools in Lagos State Education District V in which ten (10) schools that is five (5) public and five (5) private) were selected at random from Education District V in (Zone 1, 2, 3 and 4).

1.8       Limitation of Study

The limitation of this research work will be dearth of related literature in the field of the subject matter, finances and time constraint. Secrecy and confidentiality is another limiting factor, this is a situation where those interviewed are unwilling to release information they considered highly confidential which will be of great assistance to the research work.

1.9       Definition of Operational Terms

Academic Practices: This describes the quality or standard of education in a school.

Infrastructural Facilities: These are the available social amenities in within the school which includes amongst others school building, library, school lab, sporting facilities etc. Examination malpractice: is defined as a deliberate wrong doing contrary to official examination rules designed to place a candidate at an unfair advantage or disadvantage.

Efficiency: in general describes the extent to which time or effort is well used for the intended task or purpose.

Effectiveness: means the capability of producing an effect, and is most frequently used in connection with the degree to which something is capable of producing a specific, desired effect Private School: these are schools owned, managed and financed by individuals.

Public School: These are schools owned, managed, controlled and financed by the government.

Stakeholders: These stakeholders in education designs on the outcome of schooling and the purposes of learning. The major stakeholders in education are parents, teachers, students and government.




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