INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISING ON THE SALE OF SHOPPING GOODS IN BAYELSA STATE
The major purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which advertising influences the sale of shopping goods in Bayelsa-state. The study answered four research questions and tested four hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study consisted of 145 proprietors of shopping goods in Bayelsa state. The entire population was studied, hence no sample was taken. Structured questionnaire consisting of 40 items was developed and used for data collection. The instrument was face-validated by three experts, two from university of Nigeria Nsukka while the other was from University of Nigeria, Enugu campus. Crombach Alpha method of establishing reliability was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.75. A total of 145 copies of the questionnaire was distributed to respondents by the researcher and two research assistants. The data collected were analyzed using mean score while t- test statistic was used to test the four null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance .The findings of the study revealed that the use of various advertising media and display of shopping goods in strategic areas in the shop influences consumers to buy. Based on the findings of the study and conclusions drawn, the researcher recommended that proprietors of shopping goods should always carry out proper timing when advertising their products.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page Approval Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Tables
i ii iii iv v vi ix
Abstract ---------------------------------------------------------------------- x
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1 Statement of Problem 6 Purpose of the Study 8 Hypotheses 9 Significance of the Study 10 Delimitation of the Study 10
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual framework 11 Theoretical framework 22
Influence of advertising on the sale of men’s wears ---------------------- 32 Influence of Advertising on the sale of Women’s wears ---------------- 42 Influence of Advertising on the sale of Jewelry --------------------------- 55
Influence of Advertising on the Sale of Television ---------------------- 59
Related Empirical Studies 63
Summary of Related Literature----------------------------------------------- 67
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
Design of the Study 71 Areas of the Study 71 Population of the Study 72 Instrument of Data Collection 73 Validation of the Instrument 74 Reliability of the Instrument 75 Method of Data Collection 75 Techniques for Data Analysis 75 Decision Rule 76
CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA
Research Question I 77 Research Question 2 79
Research Question 3 83
Research Question 4 86 Hypotheses Testing 90 Major Findings 94 Hypotheses 96 Discussion of Findings 97 Hypothesis I 99
CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Re-statement of Problem 101
Summary of Procedures Used ------------------------------------------------ 103
Summary of Findings 104
Implications for Marketing Education -------------------------------------- 106
Suggestions for Further Study ------------------------------------------------ 108
Appendix I: Request for validation of a research instrument ---------- 115 Appendix II: Request for completion of questionnaire ------------------ 116 Appendix III: Questionnaire on influence of advertising .................... 117
on the sale of shopping goods in Bayelsa State
appendix IV: Item Analysis of Proprietors of shopping ....................... 125 Goods in Bayeksa State .
Appendix V: Item Analysis of Youth proprietors of ........................... 126 Shopping Goods
Appendix VI: Item Analysis of Adult Proprietors of .......................... 127 Shopping Goods.
Appendix VII: Item Analysis of Male Proprietors ............................... 128 of Shopping Goods
Appendix VIII: Item Analysis of Female proprietors .......................... 129 of Shopping Goods
Appendix IX: Item Analysis of Rural Proprietors ............................... 130 of Shopping Goods
Appendix X: Item Analysis of Urban Proprietors ................................ 131 of Shopping Goods
Appendix XI: Item Analysis of Retailers Proprietors .......................... 132 of Shopping Goods
Appendix XII: Item Analysis of Wholesalers Proprietors ................... 133 of Shopping Goods
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Population distribution of registered proprietors -------------- 73 Table 2: Means responses on the extent of influence of advertising on
the sale of men’s wears 77 Table 3: means responses on the extent of influence of advertising on the
sale of women’s wears 80 Table 4: Means responses on the extent of influence of advertising on the
sale of jewelry ----------------------------------------------------- 83
Table 5: Means responses on the extent of influence of advertising on
the sale of television 86 Table 6: The t-test result of the means responses of proprietors of
shopping goods on the influence of advertising on the sale of
shopping goods in Bayelsa state ------------------------------- 90 Table 7: t-test result of the mean responses of male and female proprietors
on the influence of advertising on the sale of shopping good in
Bayelsa State. 91 Table 8: t-test result of the mean responses of urban and rural proprietors
on the influence of advertising on the sale of shopping goods in Bayelsa State 92
Table 9: t-test result of the mean responses of retailers and wholesalers proprietors on the influence of advertising on
the sale of shopping goods in Bayelsa State.-------------------- 93
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The most widely accepted definition of advertising is the one developed by the American Marketing Association (AMA) in Osuala (1987), as any form of non personal presentation of goods, services or idea for action, openly paid for by an identified sponsor. However, several authors have defined the term advertising. Jonathan (1995) defined advertising as the use of television or other media in presenting goods, services or ideas to the public. He explained that advertising seeks to create awareness and draw attention of the intended target customers. Marcus in Okwandu and Ekerete (2007) defined advertising as non personal multiple presentation to the market or public of goods, services or commercial ideas by unidentified sponsor who pays for the developing of his message(s) to the carrier. The most current definition was given by Kotler (2006), who defined advertising as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods services or ideas by an identified sponsor. Kotler explained that advertising can be a cost effective way to disseminate messages whether to build a brand preference or educate people. This therefore suggests that the aim of advertising is to provide public service because it gives information about the product and the job of selling. A product refers to any thing that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or
consumption that might satisfy a want or need. It includes physical objects, services, persons, places, organizations and ideas. (Kotler, 2006). Advertising involves delivering of paid promotional messages to a number of potential consumer through public communication medium such as television, radio, magazines, billboards, or public address system (Williams, 2006). Williams stated that advertising aim at influencing the minds of the consumers as well as motivating them to buy the advertised products.
Influence refers to the power to affect somebody’s actions and character especially by providing example to follow (Jonathan, 1995). This means convincing others that the suggestion will benefit them. For example, the advertisement of “next men’s designers shoes gives the impression that individuals can wear it confidently even during raining seasons. This seeks to influence viewers towards accepting the suggestion. Frequent advertising of men’s clothing, ladies bags, etc may influence potential consumers to buy the products. This will in turn affect the volume of sales of the products.
Sales refer to the process of deciding what personal selling functions are to be performed within the context of the overall promotional mix (Osuala, 1998). When a product is advertised frequently, consumers’ response will indicate whether the intended meaning was received (Okwandu & Ekerete, 2001). It is expected that some responses which could be either positive or negative will be indicated. The consumer may buy the products or refuse to
buy. If consumers buy, sales will increase, but if they do not, sales may decrease.
A shop is an establishment where local or imported goods or services are sold, while a store is a large building in which goods are kept so that they can be used or sold later (Bullon, 2003). A shop can be located inside a store, though some of the authors use shop and store interchangeably. Shopping is the examining of goods or services from retailer with the intent to purchase at that time (Bone, Lovis, Kurty, 1992). Advertising of different sizes, colours, shapes, qualities of shopping goods such as television, men’s suits, ladies shoes and bags may influence consumers to buy the products.
Shopping goods are those products which consumers purchase only after comparing quality, price, style, colour and size (Kotler, 2003). Examples of shopping goods are men’s packet shirts, women’s clothing’s, jewelry, men’s suits, televisions, men’s shoes, ladies’ bags and others.
Men’s packet shirts are piece of clothing wrapped and sealed in a container which is worn by men on the upper part of the body, made of light cloth like cotton and usually having a collar and buttons at the front (Procter, 2005). Most advertising intend to stimulate the consumer to buy the products. For example the advertisement of “next men’s shirt or workshop men’s shirt” on television will create awareness of the existence of such products in some
shops. As a result, consumer may want to buy the advertised shirt thereby increasing the sales of such shirts.
Many firms advertise their brand names to enhance sale (Osuala, 1998). Similarly, producers advertise numerous general products such as women’s clothing, bags, shoes to increase sales of general products category (Kotler, 2003). Women’s clothing are materials such as dresses and trousers the female wear to cover or protect or decorate their body (Bullon, 2003). Many advertising messages are directed to new product, new model as well as modification of old models. Anyanwu (2005) explained that whenever a producer wants to acquaint a mass market with a new product, the producer uses advertising in order to get the attention of the consumers very quickly. Also sellers of shopping goods display their products stylishly and glamorously in their shops in order to draw the attention of the consumer to the products. For instance, the seller display women gown(s) in a showcase that is beautify with shinning light. The consumer attention may be drawn to such dress or cloth as a result of the light.
Jewelry are decorative objects worn on the clothes or body which are usually made from valuable metals such as gold, silver and precious stones (Procter, 2005). Some advertising campaign try to induce consumers to use the products for multiple functions. For example when different sizes, colours, qualities of jewelry are kept inside attractive box or placed in strategic area in a
shop, consumers may be attracted to such products because of the styles with which such products are displayed. The consumer may want to buy as many as possible so that she can use it for different occasions. By so doing, sales will increase.
Men’s shoes refer to a pair of coverings for feet, usually made of a strong materials such as leather, with a thick leather or plastic sole (Bullons, 2003). Ladies’ hand bags are soft containers made of paper or thin plastic or other materials, usually with a handle in which the ladies carry personal things or clothes they need for traveling (Procter, 2005). These products are displayed in the shops to get consumer to think or react to them in a particular way (Anyanwu, 2005). Attractive, beautiful and high quality shoes and bags are always demonstrated stylishly in the shops. The advertised goods remind the consumer of the sale of particular brand in a shop or store located within a particular area. It may also remind the consumer of the quality of the product.
Television are box-like devices, with a screen which receive electrical signals and change then into moving images and sound by electrical signals (Bullons, 2003). George and Michael (2003) defined television as an electronic device or equipment with a screen glass which shows broadcast and programmes with moving pictures and sounds. Through advertising the advertiser shows how technology has improved the sizes, designs , colour and quality of the product (George, 2003). Sellers of television display different
sizes, designs, colours and qualities in a particular pattern so as to draw buyers attention to the products as soon as he enters into the shop. Moreso, the quality of the product normally motivate the consumer to buy, which may result in increase of the sale.
Statement of Problem
The purpose of advertising is to create awareness of the products advertised. In order to achieve this aim, producers frequently advertise their products (Jonathan1995). Despite the advertising of shopping goods such as men’s packet shirts, women’s clothing, jewelry, television etc, consumers’ attention is not always drawn to it, because consumers in Bayelsa State have their areas of interest and the type of goods they buy. For example consumers prefer to buy used product, because they have the impression that they last longer and that those kind of products are not common. Also most of the shopping goods in the shops always carry a price tag which makes it difficult for the buyers to bargain. They prefer to buy by the road side or open market where they can bargain.
Advertising seeks to build a brand preference or to educate people (Kotler, 2006). On the order hand, consumers in Bayelsa State show less interest in brand preference. Some consumers prefer to buy by the road side or in the open market where they can bargain. Most consumers prefer to buy used
product than to buy quality products from the shop. In Bayelsa State, there is little or no public communication media through which consumers are educated about a product. Most consumers do not get information about shopping goods that will be of benefit to them. for example when a promo or discount are given for buying a product, some consumers who do not have access to television, radio or public communication media might not be aware.
Shopping goods are those goods consumers purchase after comparing quality, price, style, colour and size (Kotler, 2003). On the contrary, consumers in Bayelsa State prefer to consider cost, transportation and nearness to the market whenever they want to buy their products.
Osuala (1987) explained that sellers advertise numerous general products, to increase sales of the products category. But consumers in Bayelsa State consider advertised products that are sold in the shops to be very expensive thereby prefer to buy in the open market.
Advertising based on sizes, colour, shapes, qualities of televisions may influence consumers to buy, however consumers who do not watch TV advertisement frequently will not be so influenced. Furthermore, many consumers think it is a waste of time, those who do not have access to television may not be influenced by such advertisement,
Though consumers in Bayelsa State consider factors such as cost, income, transportation, nearness to market etc. However consumers who buy
original products will prefer to buy quality products from the shops. It is important therefore to ascertain the influence of advertisement on the purchase of shopping goods.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to determine the influence of advertising on the sale of shopping goods in Bayelsa State. Specifically this study will
1. determine the influence of advertising on the sale of men’s wears in Bayelsa State.
2. determine the influence of advertising on the sale of women’s wears in Bayelsa State.
3. determine the influence of advertising on the sale of jewelry in Bayelsa State
4. determine the influence of advertising on the sale of television in Bayelsa State
The study will answer the following research questions.
1. To what extent does advertising influence the sale of men’s wears in Bayelsa State?
2. To what extent does advertising influence the sale of women’s wears in Bayelsa State?
3. To what extent does advertising influence the sale of jewelry in Bayelsa State?
4. To what extent does advertising influence the sale of televisions in Bayelsa State?
The following null hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of
HO1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of young and adult proprietors on the influence of advertising on the sale of men’s wears in Bayelsa State.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female proprietors on the influence of advertising on the sale of women’s wears in Bayelsa State
HO3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of rural and urban proprietors on the influence of advertising on the sale of jewelry in Bayelsa State.
HO4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of retailer and wholesaler proprietors on the influence of advertising on the sale of television in Bayelsa State
Significance of the Study
The finding of this study would be of benefit to the business operators most especially proprietors of shopping goods as it would create awareness of the importance of advertising on the sale of their products.
The findings of this study would be of benefit to marketing students and lecturers in tertiary institutions as they would have a broader understanding of how advertising influence the sale of shopping goods.
The findings of this study would be of benefit to the Ministry of Commerce and Information. It will give them an insight on the benefit of advertising on the sale of shopping goods. It will also assist them on how to organize training programmes for proprietors of small scale business.
The findings of the study would be of immense benefit to the media organization as the knowledge gain from the findings would help them to be innovative in their various approaches to advertising designs.
Finally the findings of this study would be a significant contribution to the existing body of literature in the discipline.
Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to the proprietors and sellers of shopping goods sold in Bayelsa State. The study excludes shopping goods that are advertised but sold along the road, and open markets in Bayelsa State...