Title page                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                    iv-vi

Table of Contents                                                                    vii-viii


1.0     Introduction                                                                   1

1.1        Background to the Study                                               1-3   

1.2        Statement of the Problem                                               3

1.3        Purpose of Study                                                           4

1.4        Research Questions                                                       4-5

1.5        Research Hypotheses                                                     5

1.6        Significance of the Study                                               5

1.7        Scope of  the Study                                                        6

1.8        Delimitation of the Study                                               6

1.9        Definition of Terms                                                         6

CHAPTER TWO:  Literature Review                                                 

2.1        Concept of Political Participation                                   7-11

2.2        Type of Political Participation                                         11-13

2.3        Forms of Political Participation                                      13-20

2.4        Factors Affecting Political Participation                          20-24

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology

3.0     Introduction                                                                   25

3.1        Research Design                                                             25

3.2        Population of the Study                                                 25

3.3        Sample                                                                           26

3.4        Sampling Techniques                                                     26

3.5        Research Instrument and Instrumentation                    26

3.6        Administration of Instrument                                        27

3.7        Validity of Instrument                                                    27

3.8        Method of Data analysis                                                 27

CHAPTER FOUR:  Data Analysis and interpretation

4.0        Introduction                                                                   28

4.1        Research Question 1                                                      28-30

4.2        Research Question 2                                                      30-32

4.3        Research Question 3                                                      33-35

4.4        Discussion of result                                                       35-36

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1        Summary                                                                       37

5.2        Recommendation                                                            38

5.3        Conclusion                                                                     38

Bibliography                                                                  39

Appendix                                                                        40-42




Political participation includes the political activities of citizens aimed at influencing the political process. Such participation could be either in an individual or group basis. The political process may be the ways, directions and methods of governance or the input of the outcomes of the process. The political activities that may involve their participation: selection of leaders, influencing decision of government and the process of governance. (Okafor 2002).

Political participation includes those action of private cities by which they seek to influence or support government and politics. Political participation could either be conventional or orthodox and unconventional or unorthodox. Writing on convention and non-conventional political participation.  Janda et. al. state as follows:-

Thus, conventional participation is legal, constitutional, acceptable and normal. Activities here may include voting, campaigns and attendance to party meetings, expressing political opinions, standing for  elections, registration as a party member and as a voter for an election contesting for elective offices, party funding. These activities are in consonance with the normal political process. Unconventional political participation includes those activities that are not acceptable, not regarded as lawful and legal, not sanctioned or not normal. They include such activities as riots, strikes, violent, demonstration, arson, boycotts, rebellion, terrorism, cultism, protests, and the like. It is felt that a higher propensity for the emergence of unconventional participation is accentuated by the existence of narrow or very limited conventional modes. For people to express their feelings and be heard under a trained mode they have to resort to unconventional approaches.

Conventional (orthodox) political participation is of two fold. There could be supportive participation or influencing participation. Under the supportive dimension, our citizens express allegiance or loyalty to the state and government. Examples include singing the national anthem, reciting the national pledge or making reference to such symbols as the national flag and the coat of arms, turning out for voting purpose, etc.

The influencing dimension is concerned with efforts to modify or reverse government policy to suit political interests. Examples include trying to secure some benefits from government, asking for special social or welfare services from the government such as setting up a health canter, construction or rehabilitation of roads, sitting, a public school or police post. e. t. c.


From the above background of study, political participation is the vehicle through which citizens of a given society communicate their interests, demands, desires, support and or proposition to the authoritative decisions of the superstructure. However it seems the levels of people participation in politics are narrow may be due to the assertion that “politics is a dirty game”. Since 2003, democracy has come to be regarded as the source for political participation active towards rural direction.         Therefore, this study would seek to find solutions to the    following problem:-

Low level of education. The culture of corruption. Parochial political culture. Subject political culture. Primordial sentiment and low socio-economic development.

1.3           PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The study has the following objectives:

v    To  find out how low level of education has declined the         level of political participation in ruralities  of Ojo

v    To find out the culture of corruption whether or not, it has contribution to the level of political   participation in ruralities of Ojo.

v    To determine whether or not the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area due to subject political culture.

v    To investigate low socio-economic development   ruralities of Ojo.  

v    To advance solution to the above identified problems.


The research questions to be investigated are:

What is the profile cause of low level of education in ruralities of Ojo? Can culture of corruption affect political participation in ruralities of Ojo? Can parochial political culture contribute to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo? Is there any measure to be used to determine subject political culture in political participation in Ruralities of Ojo? What is the consequence of low socio-economic development on ruralities of Ojo?


To guide the study, the following null research    hypotheses were raised to be tested:

Low level of education cannot be significantly responsible for the level of political participation in ruralities         of Ojo. Culture of corruption cannot affect level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo. Parochial political culture cannot contribute to low level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo. Low socio-economic development cannot be significantly responsible for level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.


The significance of this study will encourage active participation of individuals in the political process of their community. The study will also make the citizens to share in governance through expression of consent,          choice, rejection of the leader and certain policies considers obnoxious. Through participation, the citizen makes some input in governance through the expression of demands, preferences, orientations, judgments and           political process.


The scope of this study is the level of political      participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state. The scope was chosen due to the low level of political participation of the people in the area and individual development.


The study will be limited to the ruralities in Ojo local    government area of Lagos state on the level of political        participation in 2008-2009.


Influence: Power to produce an effect, esp. on    character, beliefs or action. Political Participation: Is the involvement of individual in political activities. It can be through electional activities covers voting, campaigns, seeking to persuade others to vote for a given candidate or party.




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