Primary education is crucial to the development of education and to national growth and development of any nation. It lays the foundation for successful nation building, security and better standards of living for the citizens. In Nigeria several programmes have been designed to ensure basic education for all citizens. Among these is the Universal Basic Education (UBE) which was launched in 1999 and has a semblance with the Universal Primary Education (UPE) Scheme of 1976. The implementation of the previously launched programme UPE was abandoned.

The aim of this research is to appraise the UBE Scheme, studying its origins and the foundational policies, recognizing the need for it, its fundamental problems within the limited study area as a reflection of the general challenges faced on the national scene, to discover the prospects that exist for successful implementation of the program and suggest solutions to the identified problems so as to ensure that access to basic education is given to all, paving way for growth and development of Nigeria.


Title Page




Table of content


CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION                                                                   


Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Significance of the Study


Scope of the Study

Limitations of the Study

Definition of Operational Terms


Literature Review

The Need for the UBE Scheme in Nigeria

2.3      The Objectives of the UBE Scheme

2.4      The Genesis of UBE and its Initial Problems for the Northern Region

2.5      The Problems of the Universal Basic Education

2.6      The Prospects of the Universal Basic Education

CHAPTER THREE:         RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                   

3.1.     Research Design

3.2.     Population of the Study

3.3.     Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4.     Instrument for Data Collection

3.5.     Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS                                                                             

4.1      Data Analysis

4.2      Presentation and Interpretation of Data

4.3      Observations and Further Analysis


5.1      Summary

5.2      Recommendations Arising from the Study

5.3      Conclusion






Education is defined as permanent change in behavior as a result of learning and consists of all efforts (conscious or incidental) made by a society to accomplish set objectives, which are considered to be desirable in terms of the individual as well as the societal needs. In all human societies, particularly the modern ones, education remains one of the most powerful instruments for both the development of man and transformation of the human society. However, the efficacy of education as an instrument of transformation depends entirely on how the government manages the project meant for the upliftment of the educational system. (Abolarin, D. O. 2004)

It has been documented that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child labour as well as bringing about empowerment. This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent times for all citizens of the world to have access to basic education.’ (Otive, I. 2006).

All over the world, primary education has been regarded as the most important as well as the most patronized by people. This perhaps, may be due to the fact that it is the foundation of the whole educational pursuit, which is expected to provide literacy and enlightenment to the citizens. The importance of primary education can therefore be seen in the sense that all beneficiaries of the other levels of education by necessity have to pass through this level (Labo-Popoola, S.O. et al., 2010)

Over the years, Nigeria has expressed a commitment to primary or what we here refer to as basic education, in the belief that overcoming illiteracy and ignorance will form a basis for accelerated national development. Recognizing the importance of primary education, all governments in Nigeria (past and present) have placed a premium on it by making primary education the center piece of their educational policies.

This research looks into how far that this UBE has been implemented and its objectives achieved in Birnin Kebbi area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. it also would hypothesize on the problems of the Scheme, investigating the opinions of the public and several selected school administrators to find out the problems, and proffer solutions.


It is common opinion and knowledge among people from all sectors of operation that the UBE Scheme has encountered many problems. This research work would investigate the problems militating against the successful implementation of the UBE and the prospects of the Scheme in Birnin Kebbi as well as in Nigeria as a whole.


The objectives of this research include:

To investigate the problems encountered in the process of implementing the UBE Scheme in Birnin Kebbi area of Kebbi State; To analyze the causes of these problems; To review the prospects of the successful implementation of the Scheme in the area, making reasonable generalizations about the development of the people of Birnin Kebbi if the Scheme is valued accordingly; and To suggest solutions and recommendations to overcoming the challenges faced in the area.


Education is more than important to any people of any society or country and its importance cannot be over emphasized, especially in the area of basic learning skills such as reading and writing. Whatever an individual wishes to become they could be unique with proper primary education.

From all of the foregoing, the importance of education to human beings is invaluable. Education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely for the reason of being human. There are a lot of international human rights instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right. These include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (1981) to mention but a few.

This study is therefore, an eye-opener that seeks to help and encourage inhabitants, indigenes and teachers to understand and change their orientation towards primary education, especially the UBE Scheme which is free. The quality of primary education even marks the extent of success a person can attain in a lifetime.


This research will work with the following assumptions:

That the major problems that the UBE Scheme is faced with in Birnin Kebbi are lack of funding, inadequate infrastructure, mass promotion and religious influence That there are many interrelated problems as stated above that are confronting the UBE Scheme in Birnin Kebbi as well as in other parts of Nigeria. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The importance of this study to the nation at large cannot be overemphasized. However, the study is narrowed down to a few UBE schools in Birnin-Kebbi as sample for convenience purposes and a thorough investigation, and also in order to seek the overall progress of the scheme, the prevailing problems of the UBE, and recommend some solutions that could be adopted, and perhaps applied in other parts of the country.


The capturing of this study is faced with a number of setbacks such as insufficient data (lack of access inclusive), insufficient funding, lack of time and other means including gender disparities.


Disparity –             lack of equality between people or things

Education –           a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of conscious and unconscious learning

Empowerment –   make more confident or assertive: to give somebody a greater sense of confidence or self-esteem

Human Rights –   freedom, justice, and equality: the rights that are considered by most societies to belong automatically to everyone

Investigate –          to carry out official inquiry


Militate –                 have influence on something: to have an influence, especially a negative one, on something

NEI                 –          NORTHERN EDUCATION INITIATIVE

NPE               –          NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION

Posterity –              people in future: all future generations

Productivity –       the ability to be productive

Prospects –            expectations of success: the likelihood of being successful or prosperous in the future

UBE              –          UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION

UPE                –          UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION





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