This study investigated the influence principal’s gender has on teachers’ work behaviours in secondary schools in Anambra State. Five research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study employed a descriptive survey design, using a sample size of 1000 teachers (male and female) selected from schools in Anambra State through a multi-stage sampling technique. A 50 item adapted questionnaire was used to elicit information on the teachers’ work behaviours as it relates to; acceptability of responsibilities, commitment to school functions, adherence to school rules and regulations, ensuring discipline in school, and attendance to instructional duties. Mean scores were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study indicated that 41 items out of the 50 identified items in the questionnaire were accepted by both male and female teachers as their work behaviours. This goes a long way to saying that principal’s gender has no significant influence on teachers’ work behaviours which was also the conclusion of the study based on the three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Although there were few disagreements on male and female teachers’ responses, such disagreements, were minimal, which include that; female teachers are unwilling to assist in carrying out their principal’s personal duties, find it difficult to tolerate individual differences of other colleagues, and can not avoid fighting and quarrelling with staff and students; male teachers can not avoid having other businesses for profit-making as well as failure to show concern for badly done work especially when under female principal’s administration. Among others, it was recommended that the government should organize teachers’ forum through the Post Primary Schools Service Commission and Nigerian Union of Teachers, where teachers could meet on a regular basis to discuss and learn the right work behaviours and the implications of violating such behaviours. Conclusions and implications of the study were also made, as well as suggestions for further studies to identify the problems of education in




Background of the Study

The primary goal of any school organization is to achieve the high academic performance of its students. This cannot be attained without good rapport betweenprincipalsand teachers who would properly and devotedly teach and direct these students. Since the teacher is the prime implementer of the curriculum in the school, the performance of students depends so much on the teachers’ actions and reactions otherwise known as teachers’ work behaviours. Teachers’ work behaviours are those actions, activities and reactions of teachers in a school system while discharging their duties (Arguris & Schon, 1999). There are expected work behaviours of teachers in the school system. Such behaviours among others as identified in Teachers’ Service Manual (1990:16) are;

v Teachers should teach diligently and resourcefully the subject in the curriculum, inculcate by precepts and examples good conduct and behaviour among the students in and out of the school.

v Teachers should maintain proper order and discipline in the classroom, on duty and on the playground under the

direction of the principal.

v Teachers should be in the classroom or on the school premises at least ten minutes before the time prescribed for the opening of school and shall remain in the school throughout the official school hours.

v Teachers should conduct classes in accordance with the school timetables, which must be accessible to students and principals.

v Teachers should observe duty periods even beyond the

prescribed hours of instruction.

v Teachers should attend all meetings or conferences called by the principal of the school or any other related authority for consideration of matters that will promote the advancement of education. 

v Teachers in conjunction with the principals should provide parents with information in writing on the students’ school progress attendance and punctuality at least three times in a school year on an approved report form.

Ukeje (1985:44) described teachers’ work behaviours in terms of functions and activities related to good teaching. The behaviours include; 

v Ability to explain

v Ability to inform

v Ability to initiate 

v Ability to show how

v Ability to direct

v Ability to unify, etc.

        To buttress his points, Ukeje (1985) also noted as expected behaviours of the teachers; Adaptability, attractive-personal appearance, breathes of interest, carefulness, considerateness, cooperation, and dependability. 

          Igwe (2004:39) also outlined the following as teachers’ work behaviours:

v Possession of a good mastering of subject matter 

v Ability to communicate, and 

v Ability to have a sense of humour 

        Igwe also made it clear that no single teacher can possess all the above-mentioned qualities and behaviours, but they serve as indicators or parameters for measuring and evaluating teachers’ work behaviours. It is also worthy of note according to Igwe, that teachers’ work behaviours are classified into theory in use and espouse theory. He concluded that teachers should be positively motivated, knowledgeable, competent, dedicated and disciplined. Okonkwo (2007) also outlined five major parameters for measuring teachers’ work behaviours as follows: acceptability of

responsibilities, attendance to meetings, obtaining permission to be absent from duty, attending to duties, and regularity to school. He concluded that these five major parameters for measuring teachers’ work behaviours can only be determined under the close

supervision of a principal or leader in the school system.

        Principalship has been defined by Vandiver (2003) as the position held by the chief school leader, who takes decisions for the school and also influences the teachers to carry out duties that will lead to the achievement of the decisions taken. Some principals find it difficult to influence teachers in their duties, in school. According to Emeghara (2007), some factors that hinder principals from influencing teachers’ work behaviours include; gender issues, exposure/experience, leadership style and indiscipline. The recuring factor that seems to affect principals more is the issue of gender. 

        An influence, affecting both the study of leadership and the practice of administration, has been the controversial proposition that men and women bring systematic differences to their leadership styles. It has been argued that, because of their early socialization processes, women have developed values and characteristics that result in leadership behaviours that are different from the traditional aggressive, competitive and controlling leadership behaviours of men (Helgesin, 1999 & Loden, 2004). These authors also contend that women typically bring to administrative positions, an approach to leadership that is consistent with developmental, collaborative and relationship-oriented behaviours. These behaviours are seen as more compatible than traditional male behaviours with the idealized view of leadership. Consequently, it is anticipated that women will be more effective administrator-leaders than men.

        Other theorists and researchers believe that there are no systematic gender-related differences in the leadership behaviours of men and women. They argued that, given an equivalent level of responsibility within an organization, women and men exhibit the same leadership behaviours. Any gender-related differences in leadership behaviours that might have been found by some

researchers are ascribed either to rater bias (Bass, 1999) or to the use of gender-biased instrument (Astin & Leland, 2000).  

        Gender bias between the sexes exists in Nigeria. It has hindered and continues to hinder development generally. Such gender differences manifest in the following areas: dissemination, exclusion from development programmes, legal and customary barriers to owning properties, systematic violence against women, the poor quota on political appointment and so on. African tradition, culture, social and even biblical doctrines buttress men’s bossy behaviours over women. Some of these established order according to Asoegwu (2006), made men arrogate to themselves the position of leadership and use of power in the administration. Cantor and Bernay (1999) concluded from their studies that unconscious practices and social norms support the notion that power (which is often associated with force, authority, dominance and violence) is masculine. This is a universal phenomenon, which is accentuated by some traditional and cultural norms.

In the African sub-region and Nigeria in particular, there is the belief that men’s domineering attitude over women even has a biblical origin. God using a single rib from Adam created Eve. Christ’s twelve Apostles were men only. God also commanded wives to be submissive to their husbands. Traditionally, women are not allowed to break kola nut in Igboland. In Northern Nigeria, married women remain in purdah and are allowed to come out only at night with escorts. In Western Nigeria, women are supposed to be on their knees when greeting or answering questions from their husbands or other males. Strangely enough, in some parts of the middle belt, wives and daughters are offered for sex by their husbands/fathers as hospitality to their male friends/strangers if such a guest is to pass the night with them (Asoegwu, 2006). Also, young girls are trafficked for prostitution. The effect of gender cannot be overemphasized. It hinders development by seizing to permit the womenfolk to express their potentials. This height of chauvinism can suppress whatever good administrative qualities a woman has.

Emeghara (2007), outlining some factors that hinder principals from influencing teachers’ work behaviours, explained that female principals find it difficult to influence the behaviours of their autocratic male vice-principals and teachers especially if such a principal is a laissez-faire leader, who uses lesser supervision strategies and allows every one takes decisions by themselves.

Female teachers are fast increasing in number and are ascending to the position of principalship (Nonye, 2007). Based on the gender issue/effects mentioned above, as highlighted by Asoegwu (2006), in Nigeria, If the populace is still generally looking down on women, this poor perception and disregard might as well be carried into the school system. If such poor perceptions are noted in the school, it might be an evil wind that would blow no one any good. This is because, the performance of students, which is placed in the hands of teachers and principals may be affected.

 In recent time, there is this out-cry concerning the degeneration of educational standards at various levels in Nigeria. There is also generally overtly poor performance of students at the secondary school level in particular. This was revealed in the result released by WAEC, May/June 2009. According to Owoyemi in the Vanguard Newspaper of 16, September 2009, only 29.5% of the total population of students who sat for the examination credited both English and Mathematics. Knowing that the performance of students depends highly on the teachers’ work behaviours and that no student can perform better when the teachers’ work behaviours are not positively influenced by their principal, the researcher, therefore, investigated teachers’ work behaviours with reference to principal’s gender.

Statement of the Problem

In the past, women are constrained by cultural practices and religious beliefs to be educated or hold public offices in Nigeria.

Today, many women are educated and hold highly rated offices like Vice Chancellorship, Directors General, Ministerial positions, and the like. The era, prior to the Civil War in Nigeria, marked a period of teachers’ strong commitment and diligence to duties. That era appeared to be when principals of secondary schools were mainly males. Currently, things have changed. The number of male and female principals in Anambra State is almost equal, while most female teachers are still fast ascending the ladder (See table 1 appendix i). Coincidentally, teachers’ work behaviours appear to have deviated from what they used to be. Ukeje, Akabogu and Ndu (1992) indicated that classroom teachers have generally abandoned their teaching responsibilities for other businesses; when they do teach, they do so half-heartedly. 

        In a study commissioned by African Higher Education Collaborative (AHEC), carried out by the researcher and a research team at Ogbaru L.G.A of Onitsha zone last year during the rainy season, the following observations were recorded: among the nine secondary schools visited, only four were on the section. Reasons being that the schools were flooded with water and that the principals of the non-functional schools were mainly women. Fortunately, the four schools functioning all had male principals. During a discussion section, the principals said, “We have to lead by example and also force other male teachers as well as male students to join in channelling the water away from the school, immediately the flood comes-up”. Meanwhile, most of the teachers present in these schools were females and would soon climb to the position of principals. The researcher then wonders how these schools would fare when such a transition takes place. The problem of this study, therefore are the status of teachers’ work behaviours at present, its relationship to gender issues in school leadership, the impact of female principals’ administration on teachers’ work behaviours, the impact of male principals’ administration on teachers’ work behaviours. These above concerns form the focus of the study. 

Purpose of the Study 

        The main purpose of the study is to find out teachers’ work behaviours, when either under male or female principal’s

administration. Specifically, the researcher intends to investigate;

1.          teachers’ work behaviours with reference to the acceptability of responsibilities when under male or female principals’ administration.

2.          teachers’ work behaviours based on a commitment to school functions when under male or female principals’


3.          teachers’ work behaviours based on adherence to school rules and regulations when under male or female principals’ administration.

4.          teachers’ work behaviours with reference to ensuring discipline in school when under male or female principals’ administration.

5.          teachers’         work         behaviours       based       on       attendance       to

instructional duties when under male or female principals’ administration.

Significance of the Study 

        The findings of the study will most likely be useful to the Post

Primary Schools Services Commission (PPSSC), the Public, the

Administrators/Educational Planners, Researchers, Principals and Teachers as well as students who are mostly considered in the education of any nation. 

        This study identified the principal’s gender in relation to teachers’ work behaviours in Post-Primary Schools in Anambra

State, thus it will expose the strengths or weaknesses (which may exist) of male and female principals in the administration of schools, to the public as well as Education Planners/Administrators for necessary action. 

        This study aimed at bringing to light, the issues of or not, whether male or female principals’ administration can elicit improved teachers’ work behaviours. Where either of the principals’ administration is inappropriate or produces low/poor teachers’ work behaviours, the Post Primary Schools Services Commission (PPSSC) will be able to proffer solution to such a problem. This will be done by administering either transfer or fresh-posting of a principal that would improve teachers’ work behaviours in such a school, bearing in mind the calibre of teachers present in that school. 

        The findings of this study will also be most useful to the principals and teachers of secondary because it will enable them to understand whether teachers’ work behaviours are influenced by the principal’s gender or not. If teachers’ work behaviours are influenced by the principal’s gender, it will enable these principals and teachers to promote improved teachers’ work behaviours in schools so as to achieve high school effectiveness. 

        The students as the most beneficiaries of education in the country will also achieve high performance in the school. Based on the recommendations that seminars and workshop be organized by the Post Primary Schools Services Commission (PPSSC) for teachers, the teachers’ work behaviours will improve and in turn produce effectiveness in schools which will lead to the high academic performance of the students. 

        The study is also useful to researchers for further studies. It will enable them to carry out researches on other/related areas, since this work provides a basis and empirical information/data for further studies, knowing that gender is one of the contemporary issues in education. 

Scope of the study

        This study was delimited to finding out the impact principals’ gender has on teachers’ work behaviours in secondary schools in Anambra state. The study focused on all public/government-owned secondary schools in the six education zones of the state. The content of this study is delimited to teachers’ work behaviours when under male or female principal’s administration based on teachers’;

•      acceptability of responsibilities,

•      commitment to school functions,

•      adherence to school rules and regulations,

•      ensuring discipline in school, and

•      attendance to instructional duties.

Research Questions

        Five research questions were formulated to guide the study. They are:

1.       What are teachers’ work behaviours with reference to the acceptability of responsibilities when under male or female principal’s administration?

2.       What are teachers’ work behaviours based on a commitment to school functions when under male or female principal’s administration?

3.       What are teachers’ work behaviours based on adherence to school rules and regulations when under male or female principal’s administration?

4.       What are teachers’ work behaviours with reference to ensuring discipline in school when under male or female principal’s administration?

5.       What are teachers’ work behaviours based on attendance to instructional duties when under male or female principal’s administration?

Research Hypotheses

        The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

1.       There is no significant gender difference in teachers’ opinion on their work behaviours under male principal’s administration.

2.       There is no significant gender difference in teachers’ opinion on their work behaviours under female principal’s administration.

3.       There is no significant difference in teachers’ opinion of

their work behaviours under male principal’s administration and those under female principal’s administration.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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