This study was carried out to analyse the influence of motivation on students’ academic performance in five selected secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. 

Five schools within the area were sampled. Influences of motivation on students’ academic performance were discussed. These include meaning of motivation, importance of motivation and theories of motivation. This study is therefore an attempt at investigating the influence of motivation in secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. Two hundred questionnaires were used for data collection. 

The finding reveals that the inadequate number of qualified teachers has not been a problem in teaching in the schools but inadequate teachers and motivation have influence on students’ academic performance in secondary schools were offered. Among these are: Government should take motivation of teachers very important to pursue their education to higher level in order to achieve standard academic performance of the students in our schools. 

Also government should make provision for regular in-service training of teachers in order to make them have more knowledge that will be of benefit to their development in their professional career.










Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 5

Purpose of the Study 9

Research Questions 9

Research Hypotheses 10

Delimitation and Scope of the Study 11

Significance of the Study 12

Operational Definition of Terms 13


Introduction 15

Meaning of Motivation 15

Importance of Motivation 18

Theories of motivation 19

Expectancy Theory of Motivation 27

Requirements of a Good Motivational System 34

Relationship between Motivation and Performance 35

Appraisal of Literature Reviewed 37


Research Design 38

Population of the Study 39

Sample and Sampling Techniques 39

Research Instrument 40

Validity of the Instrument 41

Reliability of the Study Instrument 42

Procedure for Data Collection 43

Method of Data Analysis 44


Data Presentation 45

Discussion of Findings 52


Summary 55

Conclusion 56

Recommendations 57




Table 1: Analysis of Respondents by 

Qualifications 46

Table 2: Analysis of Respondents by Years of 

Cognate Teaching Experience 47

Table 3: Chi-square test on significance difference 

in school 48

Table 4: Chi-square test on significant difference 

in schools 50



Background to the Study 

Motivation related to the drives, desires, needs and forces that move individual towards the achievement of a goal. 

Therefore, motivators are those things and situation that induce and sensitize individuals to perform a specific task. Motivation has something to do with the force that maintains and after the direction, quality and intensity of behaviour. 

Hence, various definitions of motivation reveal three important ingredients of motivation. These are: 

i. What energizes (initiates) human behaviours such as inner state of mind needs of state of disequilibrium etc? 

ii. How was the behaviour is directed, that is, activities involved in meeting the needs? 

iii. How the behaviour can be maintained or changed. A positively directed behaviour has to be maintained with a negatively directed behaviour needs to be changed? 

Motivation may either be an internal or external force. Adegbite (2003) related that internal force is innate and it has the tendency to push or drive an individual to greater achievement.  External forms, on its own, may be inform of the whip of the task maker. They may equally be in the form of social pressures or forces which “attracts or repels”. For instance, an individual may be drawn to strive to attain what others have attained or something comparable. It should be noted however, that most actions are motivated by more than one driving or drawing force. This project focuses on motivation as a tool of agent of activities. No matter how careful management may forecast, formulate policies and plan elaborate organization structure, the success of its planning is ultimately in the hands of motivated and committed workers at all levels of the organization. Management must therefore not only plan, but also lead an inspire those upon whom it relies to implement its policies and makes the organization to function effectively. 

Educational organization cannot achieve its goal if the workers are not thoroughly motivated. By and large, motivation is a central issue that permits all aspect of teacher and as it relates to teaching and learning. Designing a good motivation programme will therefore lead to increase in productivity in any educational setting. 

Investigation conducted reveals that students of some schools are performing academically, while some fail in their studies. The questionnaires as to why is it that some student in some school are academically sound? 

Can we say this student have better potentials than their counterparts in other schools? 

A cursory look at the situation above reveals that, students that are academically sound are better equipped, treated in terms of facilities, infrastructural and other essential amenities as against their counterparts in other schools, who lack the necessary material to aid teaching/learning. 

This research work therefore looks into how motivational factors encouraged the students to perform better and suggests how schools can motivate teachers and students to be more productive, innovative and effective during the teaching and learning process. 

The importance to the development of education cannot be overemphasis. For example, current development on school academic performance has been known to be dwelling a dowry slope step. Many research finding (Yusuf 1999, Olokoba 2003) said reports from our examination councils revealed poor academic results across all levels. Even students in the tertiary institutions are not left out of the problem. 

Many methods have been used to find out the causes of poor academic performance in schools. Most of the researchers, have however, concluded that teachers mostly touched the performance of students or performance. 

It is also a fact that teachers’ welfare are neglected for examples, teachers salaries and allowances are not paid regularly. The teachers’ promotions are also delayed. Olokoba (2003) reported that teachers’ payments of allowances such as leave bonus are made a public concern through the radio and television. Besides, teachers are not allowed to have say on issues that related to their welfare. 

Statement of the Problem

The major problems of this research are to identify the effect of motivation on academic performance of students in Ilorin South, Kwara State. It has been stated by experts in management that employees are usually motivated by higher level and need satisfaction such as; a job well done, recognition and self actualization. 

It now makes more sense than ever to motivate employee with money and money substitutes, such as benefits, employers must re-evaluate pay policies constantly and try to keep in touch with employees’ personal circumstance. 

Organizational goals can only be achieved through the joint effort of the workers and the management-employees (teacher) may refuse to put in their bestif they are not adequately rewarded and denied comfortable working conditions. 

An employee (teacher/may also refuse to put in his/her best, if he/she is not promoted at the right time, if he is not giving opportunity for advancement. A well motivated worker or student will feel he is having a real impact on the organization. This means that all those who are responsible for the managements of any ministry of organization must be integrated into the system; factor that will motivate people to contribute effectively and efficiently to the success of the organization should be encouraged. A manager does this by creating a conducive environment for people to act undesirable ways. Managers motivate their subordinate is to say that there is no gain saying in the fact that any nation or state that toys with education of its citizenry, toys with its future growth and development. Unfortunately, the present state of educational development can for a sober reflection because it’s usually results to crises which affect the management of secondary schools in the state. 

Therefore, there is need to motivate teachers to put in their best in teaching and learning process. Educational goals are achieved through the effective integration of human and materials resources. The human aspect however requires a more careful consideration and approach as different things satisfy different groups of subordinates. 

Also, negative human factors are contributing to the fallen standard of education generally as a result of motivational materials that can make our classroom teachers performed effectively and efficiently. Therefore Kwara State Government has desired to take bull by the horn and take concrete step forward salvaging the educational sector from total collapse – (Budget speech on the programmes and policies of good government of Kwara State of Nigeria, this research therefore, is setout to investigate how motivation enhanced performance or productivity of students in Ilorin South Kwara State. 

1. Are there adequate provisions of welfare facilities to teachers and students in Ilorin Metropolis?

2. Are there adequate provision of equipment and facilities in the schools in Ilorin metropolis?

3. Is there any provision of in-service training for teachers in Ilorin Metropolis? 

4 Does government recognize the effort of teachers in Ilorin metropolis either by means of performance of long service awarded? 

Purpose of the Study 

The purpose of this research is to examine the extent to which teachers in secondary schools were motivated as a result of some motivational factors that make them to put in their best in discharging their duty efficiently and adequately. Also for any organization to succeed, the personal functions of attracting motivating and retaining high level of employees should be spell out because whatever the nature of the job they do, only the contended and well motivated workers and would participate fully in making an organization attain its goals. 

Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the conduct of the study.  

1. Is there any significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the adequate provision of welfare facilities to teacher (motivational factor) on students’ academic performance in schools? 

2. Is there any significant difference in the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of adequate or conducive teaching learning environment on academic performance of students in schools? 

3. Is there any significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of provision of in-service training to teachers on academic performance of student in schools?

Research Hypotheses

Three hypotheses will be tested in the study.

1. There is no significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the adequate provision of welfare facilities to teacher (motivational factor) on students’ academic performance in schools. 

2. There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of adequate or conducive teaching learning environment on academic performance of students in schools. 

3. There is no significant difference on the opinion of male and female teachers on the influence of provision of in-service training to teachers on academic performance of student in schools. 

Delimitation and Scope of the study 

This study will be limited to Ilorin metropolis five out of seven secondary schools will be sampled. The information required for this study will be limited to senior secondary schools. They are in better position to know the type and quantity of resources that serve as motivators that are available, that have been used in the schools, and the students in the senior class of the selected secondary schools. 

Significance of the Study 

The importance of this research work is to help in improving the condition of service and performance of teachers and students in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis. 

The significance of this research work is to enhance adequate 1provision of welfare facilities to teachers and students in Ilorin metropolis, so that the aims and objectives of education, will be achieved. 

The research work proffers solutions on how to prove conducive teaching learning environment in secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis so that teachers may discharge their duties effectively in the classroom. 

This research work tends to analyse some of the motivational factors that can enhance teachers and students performance in the class, such as promotion, salaries, wages, job enrichment and positive reinforcement. 

Operational Definition of Terms

Motivation: Thievalf et al (1981) define motivation as those inner drives that activate or move an individual to action. Motivation as a concept which has been used in several ways to explain why people behave as they do. 

Performance: - This is the notable action that tends to simply the level of achievement made in a give task or responsibility. Nature of the task is related to motivation and motivation to performance is task without difficulty. 

Secondary School: - Is the education received after primary school. Also it is the education that prepares one for higher educational system e.g. N.C.E., Polytechnic and university. 

Teachers:- They are the leaders of civilians and freedom. They are the greatest contributions to our country progress. They groom our political leaders to struggle for our country to attain independent, teachers are character moulders, because they teach and train the younger ones who will be leaders of tomorrow and without teachers we cannot get individual educated people in the country. 

Students: These are the pupils in the school that serve as the input and product of educational institution. Also they are in the school to gain knowledge an some skills and vocation to enable to live a meaning of full life and contribute to the development of the society in all its ramifications. 

Teaching: Is the activity which helps learners to learn using every materials that are available and for effective, suitable teaching. Also consideration is given to the nature of a child, the goals.

Learning: Means to gain knowledge or skill in the study, practice of taught, learning occurs only when you study or you’ve taught or practice particular skill that can lead to a change in behaviour, that is relatively permanent. This changes could be traced to exposure to environmental conditions as well as 



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