FACTORS RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION OF ACADEMIC STAFF IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Job satisfaction to a very large extent determines the success of any organization. Thus, it is very important to understand the rudiments of job satisfaction as it is very fundamental for the welfare of employees, including their job performance. An employee who has passion for his work and discharges his duties effectively is expected to be directly or indirectly satisfied with his job. Due to this, the level at which an employee is satisfied with his job determines if he would continue or resign.
The benefits of education cannot be over emphasized, as it is both beneficial to an individual and the nation at large. In other to achieve this, the quality of education must be greatly considered. Teachers are the determinants of quality education; of cause no one can give what he or she doesn’t have. A teacher’s role is beyond just teaching, but also instills good morals into students in order to make them good citizens that will contribute meaningfully to the development of a country (Imaobong, 2004). Thus, this makes the duties of a teacher cumbersome, as it is not an easy task to perform. However, in other for the teachers to carry out their duties effectively, they need to be motivated. Ingwu and Ekefre (2006), Pilot (2007), Aldermon (2004) and Ngada (2003) reported that high quality of education and improved standard of education can be achieved when teachers are properly motivated.
Academic staff of universities contributes greatly to the work force of a country. They are academies that have acquired much education and are expected to give back to the society; by imparting acquired knowledge to the coming generation. Due to how universally relevant and beneficial the academic staff are, the nature of their jobs make them mobile (Akpotu & Nwadiani, 2003). This is why in the last five years South Africa, it was recorded that most of their experts in different academic disciplines left for greener pastures outside the country (Stilwell, 2003). Anecdotes, in its report have it that in the 1990s, about 30% of professionals migrated towards Europe and North America (ILO, 1996). Similarly, it was estimated that in year 2000 about 178 million people or 3% of world population were living outside their country, as against 100 million or 1.8% of the world’s population in 1995 (Stilwell, 2003).
University as known is a higher level of education after the primary and secondary schools. It is the level of education that equips the individuals of a country with knowledge, skills and right morals to take up positions in the country that will aid all-round development. It’s relevance in tackling societal ills in Nigeria has led to promotion of education (Akpotu & Nwadiani 2003).
However, a research reported that one of the factors that affect the macro environment of a nation is the loss of its work force and this greatly due to the fact that most employees quit due to the problem of job satisfaction. Series of studies have pointed factors that affect job satisfaction to include supervision, income, attitude, promotion, interpersonal relationships, nature of social insurance, conditions of service, job design and equal treatment by management (Onu et al., 2005; Sur et al., 2004; Tutuncu and Kozak, 2006; Knowles, 1978, Salmond, 2006; Wiedmar, 1998; DeVaney and Chen, 2003; Greenberg, 1986).
Job satisfaction portrays the positive attitude employees put up while discharging their duties. Attitude here depicts the feelings of an employee towards the happenings in his working environment. Job satisfaction is the net result of how well employees perceive and accept those things they term important while discharging their duties (Luthans, 2005).
Over the years in Nigeria, the hopes of academic staff of universities have been shattered; characterized with increase of work stress leading to decrease of morale and job satisfaction. It has been observed that academic staff job satisfaction depicts staff’s performance and students’ academic performance (Noordin, 2009 and Muindi 2011). Attitudes of academic staff of universities are reflected through job satisfaction. An attitude that is worthy of note that affects job satisfaction is when decisions are taken in the university environment without involving the academic staff, this attitude tends to cut them off and can create the wrong impression in them that they will not contribute towards achieving such decisions. The truth remains that job dissatisfaction has negative impact on the university to include incessant strikes, low productivity, intentional absenteeism, apathy, brain drain, tardiness, etc.
However, this study is coming on the hills of investigating the factors related to job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities because they have a part to play in the country’s development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, lack of job satisfaction has been prevalent in the Nigerian university system. From time to time, Nigeria keeps losing its university academic staff for universities outside the country; possibly the highest bidders and this affects Nigerian universities. Some greedy lecturers among them still hold two appointments, one in Nigeria, another outside the country- shuttling between two countries. A closer examination of their activities prove that Nigerian universities with such lecturers are really suffering (feeling the heat); most especially the students. A good example is a final year student who has a lecturer that shuttles between Nigeria and another country, this will create a huge gap between the student and the lecturer, as well as a delay on the part of the student.
There are other working conditions that affect job satisfaction, there include lack of promotion, poor remuneration, lack of work insurance, etc. the most obvious is poor remuneration of academic staff of Nigerian universities. Academic staff of Nigerian universities keeps embarking on strikes; the 2009 Agreement of the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) with the government of Nigeria has been an age long conflict.
These are a few of the problems this study seeks to find solutions to.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to investigate factors related to job satisfaction of Academic staff in Nigerian universities.
Other specific objectives include:
To examine the significant relationship between job satisfaction of academic staff of universities and Nigeria’s human capital development. To investigate if there is a body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities. To examine the relationship between job satisfaction of academic staff of universities and performance of Nigerian university students. To recommend strategies for the improvement of academics’ job satisfaction.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are generated to guide this study:
What are the factors of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities? What is the significant relationship between job satisfaction of academic staff of universities and Nigeria’s human capital development? Is there a body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities? What is the relationship between job satisfaction of academic staff of universities and performance of Nigerian university students?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
H1: There is a body saddled with the responsibility of job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study serves as a reminder to the government and university administrators that for quality education to be achieved, job satisfaction of academic staff of universities should be treated with urgency. Reason being that job satisfaction either makes or mars the performance of both staff and students.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to the factors related to job satisfaction of academic staff in Nigerian universities.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FACTOR: A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result.
JOB SATISFACTION: Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.Others believe it is not as simplistic as this definition suggests and instead that multidimensional psychological responses to one's job are involved. Researchers have also noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (affective job satisfaction) or cognitions about the job (cognitive job satisfaction).
ACADEMIC STAFF: A member of the faculty of a college or university usually having qualified status without rank or tenure.
Imaobong, U. N. (2004). Teacher preparation for Nigerian basic education. Journal of Research in Education 1(1), 1-6.
Onu MO, Madukwe MC, Agwu AE (2005). Factors affecting Job
Satisfaction of front-line extension workers in Engunu State
agricultural development program, Nigeria, Agro-Sci. 4: 19-22
Sur H, Mumcu G, Soylemez D, Atli Y, Idrim C (2004). Factors affecting Dental Job satisfaction, Evaluation and the Health Prof. The Haworth Press. 27: 152-164.
Tutuncu O, Kozak M (2006). An investigation of factors affecting job satisfaction, Int. J of Hospitality and Tourism Admin. DOI: 101300/J149v08n01_01. 8(1): 1-19.
Knowles MC, Knowles AD (1978) Factors affecting Job satisfaction of supervisors, J. of Industrial Relations, IRSA, Sage Publications. 20(2): 138-145.
Salmond SW (2006). Factors affecting Job Stress, Job Strain and Job Satisfaction among acute care nurses, Eastern Nursing Research Society (ENRS) 18th Annual Scientific Sessions. New momentum for nursing research. Multidisciplinary Alliances. 3: 20-22:2006.
Wiedmer SM (1998). An examination of factors affecting employee satisfaction, Department of Psychology, Missouri Western University Publications, USA.
DeVaney SA,Chen ZS (2003). Job Satisfaction of recent graduates in Financial services, US Department of Labour. Bureau of Labour Statistics, Compensation and Working Conditions Online.
Greenberg MM (1986). Job satisfaction-A reader. Macmillan Press London.
ILO (1996). Migration from the Maghreb and Migration Pressures: Current Situation and Future Prospects, ILO Publications.
Stilwell B (2003). Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges, Human Res. for Health. 1 (8):1-3.
Ingwu, E. U., & Ekefre, E. N. (2006). A framework for measurement of teacher productivity in Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Education Philosophy, 2(2), 1-10.
Akpotu, N. E., & Nwadiani, M. (2003). Factors influencing academic staff turnover in Nigerian universities. Higher Education Review, 36(1), 45-56.