LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ADO-ODO-OTA, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, OGUN STATE.
This study examined the relationship between learning environment as a predictor of pupil’s academic performance in Ado-Odo-Ota, Local Government Ogun state.
The researchers used description researchers, the method was found appropriate for the study because it involve a systematic investigation in to the relationship that exist between learning environment and pupils academic performance in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.
The researcher made use of simple random techniques to select 10 primary schools In Ado Odo Ota local Government Area of OgunState.
One teacher are randomly selected from each of the primary schools and in all, a total 10 responded were drawn from the 10 primary schools for this study. Therefore, the instrument will be developed by the researcher.
The data Analysis are frequency count and simple percentage were used to analysis the personal information provided by respondents in analyzing the hypothesis formulated from this study analysis of vacancy was adopted.
On the basis of the research finding and discussion, the following are suggested and recommendation as step to make learning environment conducive for effective teaching and learning. The school physical environment building and school playing ground is a key factors in the overall health and safety of students, staff, and visitors, the school building and ground must be designed and maintained to be free of health and safety hazards to promote learning.
Policies must be put in place to ensure the availability of the needed facilities that can contribute to the academic performance of the pupils such as computers, textbook, enough classroom building, hostel for pupil’s accommodation &sports facilities e.t.c. it should not be left behind by financing them in the area of learning facilities of the pupils.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of content vi-vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study 1-4
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Research Hypotheses 6
1.5 Purpose of the Study 6-7
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the study 7-8
1.8 Definition of terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of learning environment 9-12
2.2 Establishment of Minimum Academic Standard 13
2.3 Pupil’s Academic Performance 13-14
2.5 Learning Facilities 15-17
2.6 Class size 17-18
2.7 Learning Location 18-20
2.8 Review of Empirical Studies 20-21
2.9 Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed 21-23
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 24
3.2 Research methodology 24
3.3 Research design 24
3.4 Population, Sample and Sampling techniques 24
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques 24-25
3.6 Procedure for data collection 25-26
3.7 Data Analysis Techniques 26
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
4.1 Demographic Information of Respondents 27-31
4.2 Answer to the Research Question 32-37
4.3 Summary of findings 37
4.4 Discussion of Findings 38-39
5.1 Summary, conclusion and Recommendation 40
5.2 Summary 40
5.3 Implication for the theory and Practice 40-42
5.4 Conclusion 42-43
5.5 Recommendation 44-45
1.1 Background of the Study
Learning environment as a predictor of pupils’ academic performance has been affirmed to influence academic performance among the pupils (Lawani 2004). In view of this, pupils based factors are very important in academic ‘performance and achievement. Pupil’s academic achievement and educational attainment have been studied within different framework. Many of them have focus on parents’ education, occupation or home background (like; family income, language of the home, activities of the family and work methods), while other studies looked at it from the teachers’ variables (such as teachers’ age, experience, education, gender etc) school variables (such as environment structure, buildings, location etc), pupils variables (such as attitude, self-concepts, self-esteem, study habit, interest etc) or parents’ support (such as achievement, motivation of words, parental attitudes towards education, the aspiration of parent etc)
Learning environment are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important that the teacher and learners are properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching and learning that goes on this is the essence of the school plant and facilities (Alimi 2004). Therefore, learning facilities are the space interpretation and physical expression of the school curriculum. In Nigeria at large and in Ado-odo Ota, Ogun State in particular, in primary schools, irrespective of ownership are expected to function in compliance with the achievement of the national education objectives. The learning environment, which includes the classrooms, libraries, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers etc are variables that affect pupils’ academic performance (Ajayi 2001, and Oluchukwu 2000).
Hence, the learning environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance pupils’ academic performance. The issue of poor academic performance of pupils in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even pupils themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective co-ordination of the learning environment (Ajao 2001).
Leaning environment which includes instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation space planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teacher as well as the pupils themselves are essential in teaching – learning process (Oluchukwu 2000).
The extent to which pupils learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories (Oluchukwu 2000). It is believed that a well-planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the pupils.
Relating this study to international occurrences, are the assertions of Williams, Persuade and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly learning environment (aspect of instructional space), learning facilities (accessories) were significantly related to pupils’ academic performance in schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among others treatment helped to contribute to pupils’ academic performance. The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, pupils and learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high level of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperature make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation system leads to poor healthy among pupils as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 and Ostendorf 2001).
These factors can adversely affect pupils’ behavior and lead to higher level of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitude among pupils. Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frost rating behavior by pupils including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers (Oluchukwu 2000).
Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor learning environment including problems with student – teacher ratio, learning location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms and inconsistence temperature in the classroom with pupils health problems, pupils behavior and pupils achievement (Crandell&Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2011; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001; Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Turner, 2000). To complement these studies the present research examined the influence of learning environment on the academic motivation of primary school pupils in Ado-odo Ota, Ogun State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem under study has to do with an unsatisfactory condition of the educational system being operated in ‘Nigeria. The establishment of government schools/communities schools has resulted in a situation whereby some schools were favored in term of the provision of rich environment than other. It has been very difficult if not possible for government to standardize the learning environment. Thus the environment varies from school to school. Some schools have adequate school building good library and suitable textbooks, good administrative management, professional qualified teachers, as well as good location. While in some schools little or none of these exist. The high levels of pupils’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classroom, libraries are structurally defective. However, little is known on Learning Environment as a predictor of Pupils Academic Performance in Ado-Odo Local Government, Ota, Ogun State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to examine the Learning Environment as a predictor of Pupils Academic Performance in Ado-Odo Local Government, Ota, Ogun State while the specific purposes area.
i. To examine how beauty and colour learning environment predictsacademic performance of pupils in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
ii. To examine how the physical Structure and Locationlearning environment predict the academic performance in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
iii. To investigate the extent to which health and safety of the learning environment predict the academic performance of primary school pupils in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
iv. To investigate the beauty and aesthetic of the predictors of academic performance of the pupils’ in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
The following are the research questions for this study
i. What is the quality of physical learning environment of nursery and primary schools in Ado Ota, Ogun State?
ii. What is the joint contribution of indices of physical learning environment (physical space, equipment, health and safety and beauty) to pupils’ performance?
iii. What is the relative contributions of indices of physical environment (physical space, equipment, health and safety and beauty) to pupils’ performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In order to guild this study,the researcher formulated one main hypotheses and three operational hypotheses:
Main hypotheses: There is no significant relationship between learning environment as an academic of pupils in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between learning environment and pupil’s academic performance in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between impact of learning environment in the academic performance of pupils in public and private primary school in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area Ogun State.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between learning environment and academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area Ogun State.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Although, the study will examine the learning environment as a predictor of poor academic performance of Pupils in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State. Learning environment on academic performance among primary school pupils, however, the study will only cover and be limited to ten (10) schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Ten research questions were raised for the study which have four corresponding research hypotheses. The research question would be answer with mean rating while the research hypotheses would be tested with t-test.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
School: A school is an institution designed for the teaching of student under the direction of teachers.
Learning Environment: A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding in which the learner acquires knowledge.
Academic Performance: This refers to the outcome of the academic performance of the pupils in the school.
Primary School: This is an educational institution where the early stage of schooling known as primary education and usually compulsory to a specified age, take place. It follows by secondary education and university [tertiary] education.
1.8 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various motivational factors that help pupils in achieving their academic goals. By so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing pupils’ educational outcomes in learning environment. In Addition, the fact that this study is conducted in Public and Private schools, it stores quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In thus connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools, PTA, learning environment as it affect the academic performance of pupils in primary schools..