This study examined the causes of students poor academic performance in social studies in J.S.S. III certificate examination 2007 in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. The research sampled 50 students from 5 secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. Responses were analyzed using simple percentages. From the analysis of data it was found that 70% of the respondents agreed that non-availability of laboratory affected their teaching on social studies. Also 85% indicated that their laboratory were not fully equipped even though 58% noted that they regularly visited the laboratory. It was also the opinion of 65% of the respondents that field trip were important to the teaching of social studies while 45% though otherwise 59% of the respondents supported the view of their importance of teaching aids in social studies 43% surprisingly showed that their teacher only used one method of teaching even though 62% indicated that the use of combination of method was more advantageous based on these findings the research made some recommendations to the government, P.T.A., parents students on the need to harmonize and improve the resources available for teaching social studies in junior secondary school examination.


Chapter one        

1.1         Introduction

1.2         Statement of the problems

1.3         Purpose of the study

1.4         Significance of the study

1.5         Research question

1.6         Scope of the study

1.7         Definition of terms

2.0         Chapter Two

2.1     literature review

3.0         Chapter Three

3.1     Research population

3.2     Population of study

3.3     Sample area

3.4     Research instrument

3.5     Administration of instrument

3.6     method of data analysis

4.0         Chapter Four

4.1     analysis and interpretation of result

5.0         Chapter Five

5.1     Summary

5.2     Finding

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Recommendation





          To start with, it is proper to disabuse your mind from the earlier opinion that social studies is the study of history, geography, religious studies, government civics, economic history, anthropology or sociology. It is not an amalgamation of the subjects listed above under the big umbrella of social studies. Hence, Adaralegbe (1990) defined it as the totality of experience students goes through having been exposed to such a course based on man’s interminable problem in chosen environment with a full knowledge of unable factors whether historical, geographical, traditional, political, social, religious, economic, psychological, cultural, scientific or technological that are normally responsible in man’s web of interaction with his environment.

          As Uche (1980) puts it, social studies provides understand their physical and human environment in order to act as responsible citizens. It has become imperative to find out the trend of performances of students in social studies in the junior secondary school certificate examination (2007) in Ikpoba Okha local government area.

          As the society becomes more complex and advanced in technology man restructured social studies. This a lot of innovations emanated in different perspectives some of such innovation includes, change in shelter, transportation, use of products, culture, social institutions socialization and change in education. In other to cope with the changes / innovation in social studies, the subject was introduced to junior secondary school curriculum. Hence, junior secondary schools are the level where rudiments of social studies are taught.

          Ulebor (1984) observed that students performance in social studies in Ikpoba – Okha local government area has been affected by lack of qualify social studies teachers, lack of laboratory, teaching aids, poor teaching method, poor motivation, wrong choice of course, financial problem, family problem, inadequate equipment, psychological problem, lack of provision of guidance counsellor and poor health. Despite all the effects devoted to the problem of poor academic performance, their has been little success.

          This study is therefore aimed at looking into these problems and others with a view to provide solution to tem. It is the hope of the research that recommendation that would be made based on the findings would help to ameliorate the situation. Similarly, it is believed that the recommendation would be of immense benefits to educational planner’s policy makers, teachers and students.


          This process of teaching and learning brings the individual in contact with educational process.

          In 2007, the performance of student in social studies have left much to be desired. Efforts so far made at improving this seemingly bad situation will not seen to be providing the desired result. It would appear from past efforts that the problems have not been either correctly diagnosed, or solution provided have been adequate enough to ameliorate the situation.

          In the light of the above it is obvious that the teachers and students themselves, who in the past studied separately, would provide the needed solution. The problem that arises from this situation is a decline in the numbers of students enrolling in social studies at the secondary school level. This definitely has a negative overall effect on the economy. Now that the country needs to be self sufficient the youth must be encouraged to study social studies.


          The study is aimed at achieving the following objectives:-

1.    To determine the performance of students in social studies in junior secondary school examinations.

2.    To appraise the adequacy of facilities and equipment available in teaching social studies in junior secondary school.

3.    To find out the extent to which students social economic background affects their academic performance in social studies.

4.    To find out the extent to which por condition of services for teacher and lack of qualified teachers can influence student’s academic performance.


          This study will help to throw more light on the students poor academic performance in social studies so as to be appraise the problems and prospects of the study is significant because social studies is the basic antidote for interaction between man and his environment. It is the researcher sincere hope and wish that this little contribution will be of immense benefits to the motivate their interest towards the study of the subject in schools.

          Government is likely, to benefits immensely from his study since the recommendation made in the later part of study would highlight the areas that need to be given more attention in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.

          The result of the research work would undoubtedly enable the social studies teachers to improve his teaching method and effective use of teaching aids. It will also emphases the needs for students to show more interest in the subject.


1.    The inadequate insufficient social  studies laboratory / museum does not affect the performance of students in junior secondary school certificate examination

2.    There is no significant relationship between student’s performance and their participation in field trip.

3.    The performance of students in J.s.s certificate examination is not affected by the non availability of teaching aids.

4.    There is no significant relationship between teachers qualification and students performance in J.s.s certificate examination

5.    The teaching methods employed by the teachers do not significantly affect student’s performance in J.s.s certificate examination.


          This study focuses on the causes of student’s poor academic performance in social studies in the junior secondary school certificate examination 2007 in Ikpoba Okha local government area. This research is carried out in Idogbo secondary school Idogbo, Ikpoba Okha local government area.


          The following terms used in this study are described or defined below:-

1.    Study Habit:- A well planned and deliberate pattern of study which has attained a form of consistency on the part of the students towards understanding academic subject and passing examination.

2.    Academic Performance:- This is used interchangeable with academic achievement. It refers to student’s scores arising from their responses to some set of learning tasks presented in a test or examination situation.

3.    Syllabus:- Syllabus is a guide or planned topics, which the teachers uses to teach the students, with in the school year.

4.    Field Trip:- Field trip are sometime called excursion. They give the students the panoramic view of what they have been learning in the class.

5.    Library:- Library is a room or building for a collection of books, kept therefore reading. The school library is an important department in the school which helps to promote on inclemency the growth of their knowledge.

6.    Qualified Teacher:- This is a person that undergoes series of training in methodology of teaching and be able to change or promote study performance.

7.    Teaching Method:- This is different methods used by teachers to promote students learning towards a particular subjects.

8.    Motivation:- This is the arousal of students interest in learning

9.    Museum:- This is a building in which objects of artistic, cultural, historical or scientific interest are kept and show to the public.

10. Teaching Aid/Instructional material:- There are objects or material which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher to communicate more effectively. 



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