A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AKINYELE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OYO STATE
The study investigate personnel managementPractices in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Akinyele local Government Area of Oyo State the population of the study consisted all the Public and Private Secondary Schools in Akinyele L.G.A. A stratified sampling technique was used to select five Public Secondary Schools out of twenty six and five Private Secondary Schools out of thirty five in the affected area. Simple random technique was used to select one hundred and twenty respondents. The instrument used for the study was questionnaire tagged (PMPPPSS) with 14 items for both principals and vice principals.
Thus, it was concluded that opportunities should be given to teachers to develop their potential and this can also be achieved by recognising the individual worth of teachers, this will in turn lead to effective school administration and personnel management. One main hypothesis and three operational hypotheses were formulated and tested for this study. The findings revealed that:
1. There was significant difference between personal management practices in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A.
2. There was significant difference between resource planning in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A.
3. There was significant difference between performal appraisal in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A.
4. There was significant difference between Development programme in pubic and private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A
Based on the findings, it was recommended that school management should ensure that teachers attend educational conferences, seminars in order to improve their teaching skills so as to be effective and efficient. Government should intensify its efforts in monitoring learning achievement in the type of schools and likewise provide schools with adequate facilities so as to enhance the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of teachers in Nigerian secondary schools. In addition, teachers need motivation particularly those in Public Schools for improvement and this should be provided by the government with all the necessary incentives such as adequate salaries, good working conditions and other fringe benefits that compete favourably with what obtains in other professions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the study 8
Research Questions 9
Research Hypothesis 10
Scope of the study 10
Significance of the study 12
Operational Definition of Terms 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Personal management 15
Concept of public and private secondary schools 18
Differences between public and private secondary schools 22
Empirical studies 26
Appraisal of Literature Reviewed 33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 38
Population Sample and Sampling Technique 38
Research instrument (s) 39
Validity and Reliability of the instrument (s) 40
Procedure for Data Collection 40
Method of Data Analysis 40
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION
Data Analysis 41
Hypothesis Testing 41
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of findings 47
Background to the Study
This study examines the comparative of Personnel Management practices in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government Area Oyo State Nigeria.
Ogunsaju (2000) defined management as “the organisation and mobilisation of all human and material resources in a particular system for the achievement of identified objectives in that system. “A close look at this definition clearly reveals the importance of two key words, these are, human and material. If critically examined and analysed, the human resources in the school system would comprise all men and women within the school system from the principal to the school gate-man. (Alabi, 2000). It then becomes the responsibility of the management to organise and mobilise these human resources for effective achievement of the institutional goals and objectives.
The degree of the effectiveness (goal attainment) with which people work harmoniously together for the attainment of the goals of an enterprise, the efficiency of the tools and devices they use, and the skills with which they use these tools and devices are all indicative of the efficiency of the management of the enterprise. Educational resources just like the business resources are four, these are: money, material, machine and man.The main difficulty in management is the organisation of people into co-operative teams in order to use the non-human resources effectively and efficiently. This co-ordination of human efforts is a common element, or in fact, the fundamental task in all administration.
According to Alabi (2000), human resources available to schools constitute their most valuable asset and their greatest management challenge. Therefore, managerial functions like planning, organising, co-ordinating, commanding and controlling become essential. Thus, given that quality learning depends on the recruitment, retention and development of professional teachers, effective personnel management procedures are essential, preconditions for the employment and continual development of adequately qualified and dedicated staff that would promote an optimum level of performance towards the provision of quality education.
Alabi (2000) opined that personnel management encourages making the best use of the skills and capabilities of all those employed in the organisation with a view to attaining the potentials of individual employees and organisational goals and objectives. It is the management of people at work. Thus, it is otherwise referred to as human resources management, concerned with the handling of employment relationships and all activities that are employee-oriented or centered. Management of personnel is the most sensitive aspect of management in any discipline. Long administrative experiences show that it is easier to deal with herds of cattle than directing two or more individuals. This is because, the individual differs in the sequence of needs based on each workers learning experience, cultural and economic background (Durosaro, 2000).Personnel management is an ingredient for increased productivity in the educational sector. All staff personnel services such as selection and promotion training and staff welfare development and compensation should be geared towards getting the best out of the work force. Strategies such as security of tenure of employment, education and training motivation in wages and benefits are ways to mobilise staff for increased productivity.
The poor performance of secondary school students in both internal and external examinations these days call for great concern. Over the past five years, Nigeria has consistently recorded an annual less-than 50 percent success rate in the West African Examination Council (W.A.E.C.). In 2010, it was reported that out of 1,351,557 students registered and only 337,071 which represents 23.36 % at least 5 credit which include English and mathematics. It was only 471,474 (30.9%) out of 1,540,250 who registered in 2011 that have 5 credits.
In 2012, out of 1,672,224 students that registered, only 38.8% (649,156) made five credits. In 2013 however, there was an increase with 64.26% (1,085,472) who made 5 credits. In 2014, things fell apart again as only 529,425 representing 31.28 per cent obtained five credits in English and Mathematics. It was the same story in 2015 as 616,370 candidates, representing 38.68 per cent obtaining five credits and above, including English Language and Mathematics (WAEC), 2016.
It is generally belief that students in private secondary schools performed way better than their counterparts in government secondary schools. For instance, in the 2013 W A E C, Master OgunfolajiOloruntoba, Miss FasolaIfeoluwapo and Miss Anyanwu Maureen who emerged first, second and third respectively in Distinction/Merit Award in the May/June 2013 WAEC are all from private secondary schools. Ogunfolaji who made A1 in eight subjects including English and Mathematics attendeda private secondary school named Sacred Heart Catholic School, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
Fasola (2014) who emerged second best, attended International School, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State while Miss Anyanwu Maureen Kelechi who came third attended Loyola Jesuit College, Abuja. If all these students are from private secondary schools, it implies that the teachers gave their best to the students in class, and if the teacher gave their best, it then implies that the school managements in a way motivated the teachers to give their best in the classroom. The big question now is where are the students in Government secondary schools? Why is it that their performance is not as excellent as their counterparts in private secondary school?
In an attempt to provide a lasting solution to the severity of our educational crisis, various scholars have figured out certain factors responsible for the poor performance of students in examination. Olateju (2009) identify some factors responsible for severity of our educational crisis.
1. Insufficient preparation and coverage of the syllabus by teachers;
2. Lack of adherence to instruction by students;
3. Poor comprehension due to poor reading culture;
4. Bad handwriting and poor spellings on the part of students;
5. Shortage of qualified teachers;
6. Inadequate facilities;
7. Poor human resource management on the part of the owners of schools.
The success of the school system like any other organisation no doubt is hinged on the establishment of a conducive working environment geared towards the advancement of the productive capacities of people at work. These capacities are in the pursuit of achieving the educational objectives as well as satisfying the need of the individual staff. The primary aim of the school personnel management is to secure sufficient numbers and categories of suitable teachers and support staff to undertake the task of educating the students to the standard expected by the students, the parents and the society at large. Thus, the quality of education provided in schools depend directly on the capability, commitment and motivation of the teachers together with significant number of non-teaching staff employed in a variety of support roles. This study therefore seeks to compare and contrast the personnel management practices in both private and government owned secondary school with Oyo state as the focal point.
Statement of the Problem
Personnel management usually goes beyond demand and supply of Human resources in an organisation. The existing problem in this department triggered to malfunctioning of the department. There are constraints such as individual, geographical and racial background, occupational, cultural and industrial differences and legal influence on employment decision which jeopardise their objective. In view of this, look into the difference or similarities between personnel management in Public and Private schools in Akinyele Local government Areas in Oyo State.
Parent and various mass media within and outside Nigeria have complained severally about the gradual decline in standard of education in the country as a whole Oyo State in particularly. They attributed the ugly and scenario to indiscipline among teachers and students. Government insensitivity, incompetent school heads negligence to duty on part of parents and teachers, inadequate funds, personnel school facilities and infrastructure etc. it is on the strength of these speculation that this research project sought to find out the problems facing the personnel administration of private and public secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo State. To a large extent their success or failure, principal perform both administrative and supervisory duties in their schools and because of their strategic duties, they face numerous problem.
Ezeocha (2002) identified examination malpractice drop out from schools immorality and general fall in the standard of education as problems surrounding school heads in their administrative leadership roles.
In addition lack of effective leadership coordination and control, structural organisational inadequacies including over centralisation of authority as a problem facing the Nigeria educational system.
It is observed that school leader do not make policy statements, by which decision and other administrative can be taken prompt lying the secondary school system.
It is the principal that translate the education policies, laws and regulations into practical realities. Unfortunately most of them are incompetent because they find it difficult to appraise the personnel effectively to achieve the desired objectives. In view of this, the researcher looked into the differences or similarities between personnel management in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele local Government Area of Oyo State.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine management practices in private and public Secondary Schools in Akinyele LG.A. Specifically, the Study aims at.
i. Investigate the differences between human resources planning in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Akinyele local Government Secondary Schools.
ii. Find out the performance appraisal of the personnel in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A Secondary Schools.
iii. Examine the development programmes for personnel in Public and Private Secondary School in Akinyele L.G.A Secondary Schools.
The Study will answer the following questions:
i. How does human resources planning in Public differs to that of Private Secondary Schools in Akinyele Local Government Secondary Schools?
ii. What is the difference between the performance appraisal of the personnel in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A Secondary Schools?
iii. Are there any difference between the development programmes for personnel in Public and Private Secondary School in Akinyele L.G.A Secondary Schools?
The following hypotheses will be formulated to guide the study.
Ho:There is no significant difference between personnel management practices in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Akinyele L.G.A Secondary Schools.
Ho1:There is no significant difference between resource planning in Public and Private Secondary School in Akinyele L.G.A.
Ho2:There is no significant difference between performance appraisal in Public and PrivateSecondary Schools in Akinyele L.G.A. Private School in Akinyele L.G.A.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between development programme in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele L.G.A.
Scope of the Study
This study covers the entire secondary schools in Akinyele Local government Area, Ibadan Oyo State. The study employed Questionnaire as the major instrument to collect data for the expected analysis. Descriptive survey method was used to guide the study, five (5) private secondary school and five (5) public secondary school were selected in the study area. 26 teachers in Public secondary and 35 teachers in the private secondary schools are selected. This makes the total population for the study to be three hundred and five (305), out of which we only sample 120 for precision and accuracy in order to investigate the exact analysis of personnel management practices in public and private schools in Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo-State. Sample Size was picked on random scale Yamane (1990). A researcher designed questionnaire will be used to collect information from the respondents. The study is limited only to the principals and vice principals of private and public secondary schools in the Local Government Area of Akinyele, Oyo State
The study focus on the comparative Analysis of Personnel Management practices in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government area of Oyo State. It is design to provide baseline information of personnel management towards effective personnel management in public and private secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government in order to increase efficient and effective performance of personnel in Secondary Schools. The study is carried out within the year 2017.
Significance of the Study
The significance of this research work is to serve as an exposure to the personnel management practices in both public and private secondary schools. This will give a better understanding of what is expected of who in the system, prospective teachers, educational administrators and managers and policy makers. The findings of the study will also serve as a guide towards an effective personnel management practices in public and private secondary schools. Moreover, this finding will benefit prospective teachers, educational administrator, managers and policy makers in the following way. No educational system may rise above the quality of its teachers (FRN, 2004) Therefore, acquiring teacher services, developing their skills motivating them to high level of performance will ensure that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation in order to achieve the organisational goal.
To educational administrators and managers, the finding will help them to stimulate and promote competent workforce in order to make their fullest contribution to the development of the school. It will also help the administrators to solve the problems and the grievances of people at work effectively and also help the workers to develop their potential fully through the administrative incentive plans.
This finding will help the policy makers to make a policy that will favour the entire employee irrespective of their race, creed, colour or sexual orientation. It will also help them in the formation of policies governing talent acquisition and retention, wages & salary, administrative welfare activities and interpreting personnel policies in an appropriate manner.
Practices in both public and private secondary schools. Thus, the attainment of educational objectives made a possibility taking into consideration the availability of human and material resources and its utilization.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms would be operationally defined:
Performance Appraisal:-refers to evaluation of an employee’s current and or past performance along with his/her performance standard in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele LGA, Oyo State
Resource Planning:-refers to process by which the principal ensures that the right personnel, who are capable of completing those tasks that help the school to achieve its objectives in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government Area Oyo State
Development Programme:-refers to employee growth and future performance rather than an immediate job role in the school system in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government Area Oyo State
Personnel management:- refers to an administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees that include recruitment, performance appraisal, resource planning and development programme in Public and Private secondary schools in Akinyele Local Government Area Oyo State..