1.0              INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In an effort to beautify oneself. Man has developed and chronologically devised diverse practices and process of beautification which include Hair Dying, Hair bleaching and skin bleaching, lightening or whitening.

Hair bleaching is essentially a process of lightening the colour of the hair. Chemicals like Hydrogen peroxide is often used in combination with ammonia and toner to both lighten and change the pigmentation (melanin) or shade of the hair by oxidative destruction.

Going by history, in the 1661 book eighteen books of the secretes of Art. The Romans have been known to be interested in changing hair colour and history revealed that they have created over a hundred recipes using natural ingredient. The preparation could only darken hair. Renaissance time, the blonde was a popular choice because it was considered to be angelic and attractive.

In 1907, Euguene Scheller, the founder of L.O. real, created the first synthetic hair dye, but it wasn’t widely sold. Its important can be seen in its application before hairs are dyed so as to achieve a desirable and effective result from the dyeing.

Hair dye or hair colour is defined as a chemical preparation used to change the colour of a persons hair and hair dyeing is the process of chemically changing of the hair colour. Hair dyeing is also useful and important in changing the colour of the hair of people who have grey hair in which some cultures has historically been considered to be a sign of ageing while in some others a sign of wisdom and grace. Younger people may dye or colour their hair as a fashion statement.

There are different types of hair dyeing of which the most common classification are temporary, semi-permanent, demi-permanent/sometimes called deposit only and permanent.

Skin bleaching, whitening or lightening has been defined by Christopher Godwin (1991) as any process in which pigments is removed from the skin which can be done using soaps, pills, cream and even laser and also surgical treatment.

The importance of skin bleaching is considered and harnessed in the treatment of certain health skin abnormal conditional example specific zones of abnormally high pigmentation such as moles and birthmarks may be depigmented to match to the surrounding skin conversely in cases of vitiligo, unattended skin may be lightened to achieve a uniform appearance. There are different types and classes of chemical bleaching product or reagents for example Tryrosinase, Exfoliants, Homemade treatment, mercury, hydroquinone etc.

Skin bleaching or lightening has a long history in Asia stemming back to China and Japan where the saying “one white covers up to three ugliness” were passed through the generations. A white complexion in South East Asia, where the sun was always out, only those rich enough could afford to stay indoors, while peasants baked in the rice fields.

In their early bid to lighten up, Chinese ground pearl from seashell into powder and swallowed it to whiten their skin, says Chinese university chemical pathology, Professor Christopher Lam Mai-kai while across the yellow sea, Geisha girls powdered their face chalk-white (Japan).

This obsession with the witness has not faded over time. Another history has it that skin bleaching creams were first purchased on to the market in the United State for African women encouraged to keep their skin light in an effort to emulate the Caucasian (a member of any of the races of people who have pale skin) women, who were put on a pedestal as the ultimate measure of human beauty. Later the market expanded to apartheid South Africa and then onward East Africa until it eventually ended up in West Africa where it has taken root, from Senegal to Cameroon.


The study investigates the effect of bleaching and hair dyeing reagents or chemicals on the body. It also tries to find out the solution to the effort of the reagent on the body.

1.3              PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to look for ways to reduce if possible eradicate the negative effects of bleaching materials on students.

To also add to the knowledge of the students.

1.4              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This project work is intended to provide answers to following questions that will serve as a springboard for the statement of the research hypothesis.

What are the factors of influencing or promoting skin bleaching and hair dyeing? Are there policies of rule and regulation governing the importation or usage of bleaching products? Are there awareness programmes that inform the people about the dangers of skin bleaching Are students aware of the negative implication of skin bleaching and hair dyeing What are the effects of skin bleaching and hair dyeing on the body What are the possible solutions to the problem of bleaching hair dyeing Does students know the chemical composition of the reagents Can bleaching and their dyeing stop in our campuses.



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