INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS


INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IBESIKPO ASUTAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE)  

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the influence of school environment on Students’ Academic performance in Secondary Schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. In order to achieve this purpose, four research questions were posed to guide the study and four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted causal comparative design. The target population of the study constituted 1660 SS2 students in 7 public secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.  The researcher sampled 332 SS2 students using systematic random sampling technique. The researcher developed structured questionnaire with 25 items which was titled “Influence  of School Environment on Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISEAPSQ)” The mean statistic and standard deviation were employed in answering the research questions, while Bivariate Linear Regression  statistic was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there was there was a High extent of influence of school facilities, school personnel and nature of school environment on the academic performance of students while there was a very high extent of peer group on academic performance of students. The finding further revealed that there was a significant influence of school facilities, peer group and school environment on academic performance of students whereas there was no significant influence of school personnel on academic performance of students. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that environmental variables (school facilities, school personnel, peer group and nature of school environment)influence academic performance of students at a high extent. On the strength of this conclusion, the researcher recommended that, parents, industries, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and all  other stakeholders in education should ensure adequate provision of school facilities to enable improved academic performance of students. Principals and other school personnel should create and maintain a conducive learning environment in order to bring about improved academic performance of students.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page- - - - - - - - - - i

Declaration- - - - - - - - - - ii

Certification- - - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - -- - - - - iv

Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v

Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi

Table of Contents- - - - - - - - - vii

List of Tables---------

List of Appendices - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 6

1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - 9

1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 10

1.5 Research Questions - - - - - - - 12

1.6 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - - 12

1.7 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - - 13

1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 13

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 14

2.1.1 Social Learning Theory - - - - - - 14

2.1.2 Behaviourist Theories - - - - - - - 16

2.1.3 Abraham Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory - - - - 16

2.2 Conceptual Framework - - - - - - 18

2.2.1 Concept of School Environment - - - - - 18

2.2.2 Concept of Academic Performance - - - - - 21

2.2.3 School Facilities and Academic Performance - - - 22

2.2.4 School Personnel and Academic Performance - - - 23

2.2.5 Peer Group and Academic Performance - - - - 24

2.3Review of Related Empirical Studies-----26

2.4 Summary of Review of Related Literature - - - - 31

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 33

3.2 Area of the Study - - - - - - - 33

3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 34

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - 35

3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - - - 36

3.5.1 Validation of Instrument - - - - - - 36

3.5.2 Reliability of Instrument - - - - - - 37

3.5.3 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - 37

3.6 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 38

3.7 Decision Rule - - - - - - - 38

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1 Data Presentation/answering research Questions - - - 39

4.2 Test of Hypotheses - - - - - - - 47

4.3 Findings of the Study - - - - - - - 51

4.4 Discussion of the findings - - - - - - 52

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  

5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 55

5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 56

5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 57

5.4 Suggestions for further Study - - - - - - 58

REFERENCES 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Generally, there are many factors that influence teaching and learning process. Researchers have carried out studies on the possible influence of such factors on learning outcomes measured in terms of academic performance. School environment which comprises both the physical and social aspects of the learners’ surroundings in which learning experiences or cues are drawn from could be a possible factor influencing academic performance of students.

The concept of school environment permeates all levels of education including primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education. Secondary education in Nigeria is the second level of education or post primary education. It could be compared to the walls of a building after the foundation has been erected. In the current 9-3-4 system, three years of junior secondary shares part of the 9 year basic known as the upper basic. The remaining three years is for senior secondary. Secondary schools in IbesikpoAsutan share these features. The school environment as it affects academic performance at the secondary school level should not be treated with a wave of hand.

Generally, school environment remains both physical and social surroundings of the learner which can either create an enabling atmosphere for learning or interfere with learning goals. Stott (2004) visualized the term environment as encompassing all of influences upon development which come from outside the individual.Etuk, Etor and Eyo (2015) saw school environment interms of school climate and defined it as  a product of the interaction between the school human resources  comprising of the students, teachers, non-teaching  staff and administrators, and also as a general work milieu /atmosphere  that is influenced by the participants by the school leadership. Ajayi (2009) viewed school environment as factors within the school that influence the teaching and learning process and such factors include classrooms, library, technical workshops, teachers’ quality, teaching methods, peers among other variables that affect teaching and learning process. The extent to which the learners learn could be enhanced depending on what the school environment provides to the learners and the teacher.

To all intents and purposes, school environment influences the level of academic performance of the learner irrespective of educational level. But academic performance is frequently viewed in terms of examination performance. Thorndike and Hagen (2004) defined academic performance as the ‘index of general mental abilities which responds to the test of different kinds’. Hoyle (2006) saw academic achievement as that which is measured by the examination results and is one of the major goals of a school. The interdependency or interrelationship among teachers, learners, the physical facilities, peers and the learning environment generally is a strong determinant of academic performance.

Some school environmental factors may be considered key factors influencing academic performance of students in secondary schools. These may include school facilities, peer groups, school personnel and nature of school environment.

 School facilities may influence academic performance of students in secondary schools. The availability, degree of maintenance, effective utilization of school facilities and degree of supervision of school facilities may have a whole lot of impact on academic achievement. Observation has it that in some secondary schools in AkwaIbom State, facilities such as classrooms, library, laboratory, instructional materials among others are not available, not properly maintained, inadequate, and poorly utilized. FRN (2004) indicated that the quality of education that our children receive bear direct relevance to the availability or the lack of school plants and facilities in which learning takes place. Hughes (2005), and Lyons (2001) opined that student achievement depended upon the age, design, and condition of the school facility.

Nevertheless, the quality of school personnel present in our secondary schools may be one of the ecological factors influencing the academic achievement. Teachers of high quality may be present in schools but prove to be inefficient when poorly motivated. Outside of motivation, inadequate teacher: student ratio in some schools due to the introduction of free and compulsory education in the state can make an otherwise effective teacher to be ineffective. Also present in our school system are some square pegs in round holes. FRN (2004) stated that no country can grow above the educational level of its country and no student can grow beyond the knowledge boundary of his teacher. Lack of capacity building for teachers and hiring of unqualified teachers are big threats to our school system and academic achievement in particular. Ayiboye (2019) stated that today, teaching in Nigeria continues to be treated as all comers affair without much regulation. Even the Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria’s effort in sanitizing the system has not yielded much positive result. This has negative tendencies on academic achievement of secondary school students.

Furthermore, the importance of non- academic staff in our secondary schools today is often handled with levity.The relevance of non-teaching personnel in our schools today cannot be overemphasized. The lab-attendant, library attendant, the school nurse, the school gateman among others, all play a very serious role which without it will seriously hamper the goal of achieving high academic performance in school. Observation has it that in some schools in IbesikpoAsutan, the non-teaching personnel go to work late, some would even absent themselves from school for days without serious actions being meted out on them by the school administration. Conversely, students cannot have access to the library, laboratory and the rest of the school facilities in which they are in-charge of. If thewelfare of the non-academic staff is relegated to the background, academic performance of the students which is of the goals of education would suffer serious defeat. Outside of school personnel, peer group could be a possible factor influencing academic performance of students in secondary schools.

Peer group is commonly seen as the pivot of social change and during interaction with peers, the child life is transformed from the helpless child into mature adult. Observation has shown that peer influence can have both positive and negative impact on academic achievement since there are always two sides to a coin. Peer influence may influence positive learning by the students and ultimately their academic achievement. Etim (2016) opined that adolescents always emulate their mates in whatever form of behavior  they exhibit, particularly that which interest them thus, since socialization only refers to  changes in behavior, attitudes having their origin in  interaction with other persons and those which occur through interaction, a child learns more through  interaction with others.

From close observation, the problem of peer group with regards to academic performance is that if peers who lack interest for studies meet, refusal of one to study can also bring about the lack of interest of the rest of the group members. Also, if the learners choose for themselves and embark upon learning content which is contrary to the approved standards and culture of the society, this may affect their positive learning and ultimately academic performance.

However, the nature of school environment may be a possible environmental factor influencing academic performance of students in secondary schools. The school environment may be conducive and promoting high academic achievement of students, atimes the reverse can be the case. Some of the school environmental factors affecting academic performance may include high density school environment, architecture of learning environment, outdoor learning environment and thermal environment or climate control.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Observation by Frazier (2002), Lyon (2001) and Osterndof (2001) has it that poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon di-oxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperature make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers which leads to poor academic performance and absentee rates. These factors can adversely affect students’ behavior and leads to high levels of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitudes among students.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The School environment which should bring about high academic performance of students is expected to provide a conducive climate for effective teaching and learning to take place. This climate is often enhanced by factors such as provision of school facilities, positive peer influence, school personnel and the favourable nature of the school climate which should be devoid of noise, well designed with favourable temperature for learning.

Over the years, secondary schools in AkwaIbom State where the area of the study is situated have been recording poor academic performance in West African School Certificate Examination (WASC) and National Examination Council (NECO) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Examination Board (JAMB). Some of the factors responsible for the poor academic performance are not unconnected with school environmental factors. For example, observation has it that in some secondary schools in AkwaIbom State, facilities such as classrooms, library, laboratory, instructional materials among others are not available, not properly maintained, inadequate, and poorly utilized. Also, Teachers of high quality may be present in schools but prove to be inefficient when poorly motivated. As a result, teachers absent themselves from school. Outside of motivation, inadequate teacher: student ratio in some schools due to the introduction of free and compulsory education in the state has rendered an otherwise effective teacher ineffective. Also present in our school system are some square pegs in round holes. Observation has it that in some schools in IbesikpoAsutan, the non-teaching personnel go to work late, some would even absent themselves from school for days without serious actions being meted out on them by the school administration. Conversely, students cannot have access to the library, laboratory and the rest of the school facilities in which the non-teaching personnel are in-charge of.

Another problem of school environment with respect to academic performance is peer influence. It has been observed that if peers who lack interest for studies meet, refusal of one to study can also bring about the lack of interest of the rest of the group members. Also, if the learners choose for themselves and embark upon learning content which is contrary to the approved standards and culture of the society, this may affect their positive learning and ultimately academic performance.

The nature of school environment has also been observed to affect the academic performance of secondary school students. For example,the noise from the school environment, hot environment, poorly designed school environment and high density school environment makethe students very uncomfortable thereby disrupting teaching and learning process and ultimately academic performance.

The aforementioned problems have their own implications on teaching and learning process. When school facilities are not available inadequate, poorly maintained and poorly utilized, the students cannot have a conducive environment for teaching and learning. This will ultimately result in low academic performance of the students in both internal and external examinations. Also, negative peer influence, problems relating to school personnel and those connected with the nature of school environment do not provide a conducive learning environment to the students. When teaching and learning process is ineffective, this will result in low academic performance of the students. It is therefore of utmost importance that the school environment is very conducive for learning to take place effectively.

Planted on such background, the researcher intends to determine the influence of school environment on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in IbesikpoAsutan Local Government Area.

1.3 Purpose of the Study:

The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of school environment on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in IbesikpoAsutan Local Government Area. Specifically, the study will:

1. determine the extent to which school facilities influence  the academic performance of students.

2. determine the extent to which school personnel influence  the academic performance of students.

3. determine the extent to which peer group influences  the academic performance of students.

4. determine the extent to which the nature of school environment influences  the academic performance of students.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to students, teachers, school administrators, and government and future researchers.

The findings of this study would be of great assistance to the students. The students wouldgain insight into the placeof conducive learning environment in their academic performance. Students would seek to protect and maintain the available school facilities, gain better understanding of the need to maintain tranquility in schools and its effect on academic performanceand understand the effect of their relationship with peers on academic performance. The students would also understand the place and importance of school personnel in relation to their academic performance and seek to create a good relationship with these personnel.

The result of the findings of this study would also be of help to the teachers at various levels of education. It would help the teachers to recognize the sum total of the conditions in which learning takes place. By so doing, teachers would consider the effect the nature of learning environment, instructional facilities, peers, among other factors making the school environment have on lesson delivery and the outcome of such delivery measured in terms of academic performance.

School administrators would also find the result of the findings of this study relevant. Recognition of the relationship existing among school environmental variables would help school administrators in effective planning of school programmes. It would also help the administrators to make policies that bring about conducive learning atmosphere, provide necessary infrastructures and facilities, take care of the teachers’ welfare and consider the needs of students in the architectural design of schools among other factors which possibly affect the academic performance of the students.

The result of the findings of this study would also be of relevance to the government. The government would be well furnished with the knowledge of the interrelationship among school environmental variables in bringing about phenomenal academic performance. The government would know the consequence of citing schools at noisy environments, neglecting the welfare of teachers, or not considering the needs of the students when drawing up architectural design of schools, and in aspect of curriculum planning. The government would also know the effect of inadequate provision of facilities in schools and inadequate teacher: student ratio on academic performance of students.Finally, the future researchers would find this work useful to their future research work.

1.5 Research Questions:

The following research questions were posed to guide the study:

1. What is the extent of influence of school facilities on the academic performance of students?

2. What is the extent of influence of school personnel on the academic performance of students?

3. What is the extent of influence of peer group on the academic performance of students?

4. What is the extent of influence of nature of school environment on the academic performance of students?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance:

H01: There is no significantinfluence of school facilities on academic performance of students.

H02: There is no significantinfluence of school personnel on academic performance of the students.

H03: There is no significantinfluence of peer group on academic performance of the students.

H04: There is no significantinfluence of nature of school environment on academic performance of students.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited toinfluence of school environment on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in IbesikpoAsutan Local Government Area. It covered factors such as school facilities, school personnel, peer group and nature of school environment in relation to academic performance of students. It also limited its respondents to SS2 students at the senior secondary level because of their maturity in responding to the research instrument.

1.8 Definition of Terms

1. School:A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students or pupils under the direction of teachers.

2. School Environment:This is the physical things found in the school surroundings, including the school building and various attributes.

3. Influence:The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself

4. Academic Performance:This is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.

.

INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.