1.1Background to the Study

So many reasons have been advanced for the poor performance of pupils in schools prominent, among them is the role of the teachers and Parents seem to depend only on teachers with the belief to change or transform their children to academic experts over night and anything that falls below this expectation makes the teachers conduct unacceptable.

Few people care  to think of other factors responsible for academic performance of pupils at school. Unfortunately this factors are so weighty that it renders the efforts made by the teacher towards the realization of pupils  academic useless. It is widely accepted that child academic performance does not only restrict to the school he or she attends but also the educational preparation that a particular child had received outside the school. It could be from the family, the community and from the peer group.According to Grosk (2004) the background of any child should be properly laid down, else such a particular child will face a lot of difficulty in future .Some pupils who are very brilliant were negatively affected by the attitude of their parents by not providing them the necessary materials needed in the school and at home.Apparently, it is now noticed that pupils whose parents encouraged and provide their educational needs always perform excellently. It was discovered that many parents do not realize the importance of keeping their children at school beyond some certain level they preferred to have their children working with them in their trade, and those that are interested in keeping their children at school never bothered to give a follow up by checking their children’s notebook and guide their home work .This medium makes the children performance to go below average in school .

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of education in an individual cannot be over emphasized. Education has a long lasting impact on one’s life. The acquisition of knowledge and skills and all other things that is worthwhile which are transmitted to a person through formal and informal education determines his/her potential in future. 

At the end of every instructional period in school comes examination. Over the years, the society has been recording a persistent increase in the rate of poor performance in various school examinations such as the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination [SSCE]. If this trend is not nip in the bud, it will have grave repercussion on the lives of these students, their parents and the society at large. 

Comments from educators have shown that the blame from lack of good performance has been as a result of neglect and carefree attitude towards academic work by pupils and parents. Home is the first school for a child where he/she is taught the basic norms and values by the parents before the child leaves for the formal education. Contrary to the opinion that learning and reading begins in school, the first foundation of the child begins at home. A good and conducive home environment with adequate learning facilities would help to boost the intellectual and academic capability of the child. Well educated parents would always have good attitudes towards education and provide learning materials such as television, instructional video tapes, novels, books and journals that could facilitate the learning process. The motivation of any intelligent child towards learning is being accelerated by the positive influence of his/her environment while others are negatively affected in terms of their non-stimulating home environment.

1.3 Research Questions

i. What is the academic background of parents of primary school pupils in Saki-west?

ii. What is the academic performance of primary school pupils in Saki-West?

iii. Is there any significant relationship between academic background of parents and primary school pupils in Saki-west?

1.4 Research hypothesis

This study was guided by the following null hypothesis (H0) hypothesis.

i) There is no significant relationship between Parents’ Academic background and the pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Saki- West.

ii) There is no significant relationship between parents’ academic background and pupils academic performance on the basis of gender 

iii) On the basis of school type

1.5 Purpose of the Study 

        The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between parental academic background and primary school pupils’ academic performance in Saki-West.      

                                                                                                                               (i) To determine the relationship between parents’ academic background and pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Saki- West.       

(ii) To establish the influence of Parent/Family Involvement on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Saki-West.

(iii) Correlate the relationship between parental academic background and primary school pupils’ academic performance in Saki-West.  

1.6 Significance of study

Hopefully, the study will assist the Headmasters/ Headmistress in Primary schools to understand how parent academic background affects pupils’ academic performance and assist the pupils to perform better. Also the pupils will be able to intervene in the case of poor performance to offset the negative effects of changing dynamics of the family.

This study will also help the parents to understand the effect of the home environment on academic performance of pupils, hence improving their home environment so as to improve pupils’ academic performance.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study

A number of limitations were anticipated during the study. One of the aspects of this study was to determine parental academics status. As such, some respondents hesitated to provide useful information for the study due to embarrassment of exposing their illiteracy level. The researcher overcame this by assuring the respondents that the findings of this study would be used for academic purposes only. Also some parents were not willing to give their family details for fear of exposing their private life.

1.8 Definitions of terms

Parent academic status: In this study refers to the family where the students are brought up.

Intrinsic motivation: Refers to doing an activity for itself and the pleasure and

 Satisfaction derived from participating.

Extrinsic motivation: Refers to performing an activity as a means to an end, to Satisfy an external demand, or reward

Motivation: Refers to being neither intrinsically nor extrinsically motivated to Perform an activity.

Social economic status: Refers to financial status of the family.

Performance : Refers to the grades both per subject and overall that the pupil obtained in examination.

Upper class. In this study refers to the highest social class in the society. (The rich).

Middle class. refers to the social class with average income.

Poor. Refers to the class in the society lacking money or material possessions

Poor results: Refers to the examination outcomes in which the mean grade or individual     subject performance curtails the learner from higher education or further training.



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