EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF SANGO AREA IN ILORIN METROPOLIS OF KWARA STATE).
Drug/substance abuse is one of the major problems confronting the nation today especially among the youth. Incidences of drug/substance and alcohol abuse and related anti-social behaviour have tremendously increased in recent years. This has become a matter of concern to the government, parents, teachers, non-governmental organisations and all other relevant agencies. The Nigeria government has recognised the seriousness of the drug/substance problem, this is the reason why most of the drugs are prohibited by law and there national and interenational agencies established for the purpose of monitoring and controlling illegal drug trade.
In 1980, the Federal Government established the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) to fight drug abuse and trafficking in the country and initiated the National Campaign against Drug/substance Abuse (NACADA) in early 2001. This present study found that drug/substance use and abuse among youth are increasing despite the control mechanisms that have been put in place. The study recommended that, as a first step to prevent and control drug/substance abuse, parents should be sensitised on the dangers of drug/substance abuse, the attendant problems and their functions as role models. Furthermore, schools should have a drug/substance prevention curriculum from Kindergarten onwards teaching that drug/substance use is wrong and harmful. There is also the need for initiation of rehabilitation programmes for drug/substance dependent persons.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Copy right iii
Table of content vii
Background of study 2
Statement of the problem 4
Purpose of the study 4
Research question 4
Significance of the study 5
Scope of the study 5
Definition of terms 6
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 7
Concept of drug/substance abuse 7
Common drugs/substance abuse by youth in Ilorin metropolis 8
Reasons for drug/substance abuse 11
Theory on drug/substance abuse 14
Structural strain theory 15
Theoretical theory 15
Research design 16
Population sample and sampling techniques 16
Instrument of data collection 17
Validity of the instrument 17
Reliability of the instrument 17
Procedure for data collection 18
Method of data analysis 18
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 19
Summary of finding 32
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 33
Suggestion for further study 36
Background to the Study
This research work investigated the effects of drug/substance/substance Abuse among youths in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. It is a case study of Sango area in the state capital.
According to Laver (1978) drug/substance abuse simply means the improper use of drug/substances to the degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user and or the society. The World Health Organization (WHO (2006) also defined drug/substance abuse as a “state” of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug/substance (natural or synthetic).
Drug/substance abuse patterns include all aspects of drug/substance usage by the youths ranging from how much, how often and what sort of drug/substances, where who, with, what circumstances and so on. The analysis of contemporary social problems has consistently proved more and more controversial because of the variables involved in their analysis, with the incidence of drug/substance abuse, being of utmost concern to the user himself, his family, the government and the entire society in which he lives. This situation seems to have caused a lot of embarrassment to the government including most especially the damage done to the image of Nigerian abroad. It is obvious that custom officials in the United States of America and indeed the entire nations of Europe subject the people of Nigeria traveling to their countries to a more thorough and embarrassing checks. This type of degrading and humiliating checking of Nigerians according to them is because they want to crack down on drug smugglers of which Nigerians are the chief suspects due to the hard drug/substance trafficking posture exhibited by many greedy Nigerians.
The Nigerian society has defined some drug/substances as acceptable while others as not acceptable without reference to their effects on mental and physical wellbeing of the users. For instance, our society considers the use of alcohol and nicotine as acceptable; hence those who take these drug/substances do so freely in public without fear of arrest or societal stigma. In the society as a whole, crime, promiscuity, armed robbery and other vices are all linked to drug/substance abuse. Therefore this study is motivated by the controversy that surrounds the effect of drug/substance abuse among youth in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state.
Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a dependence on a legal or illegal drug or medication. Keep in mind that alcohol and nicotine are legal substances, but are also considered drugs. When an individual is addicted, he is not able to control his drug use and he may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. The individual may want to quit, but most people find they can’t do it on their own. It can also lead to serious, long-term consequences, including problems with physical and mental health, relationships, employment, and the law.
Many things influence the development of an addiction. While we do not yet know how these various influences combine to form an addiction, we do know there are two basic types. One type of influence is biological forces, such a person’s genetics. The second type is environmental influences. This includes people’s life experiences. Early life experiences, interpersonal relationships, and culture can heavily influence us.
Statement of the Problem
Drug/substance abuse in Ilorin metropolis in the contemporary time has become one issue that cast a gloomy shadow to the entire Nigerian society especially among youths. The height of drug/substance trafficking in Ilorin was witnessed in 2015 during the political campaigns. During that period, it was mostly the youths that were involved in drug/substances abuse, despite the decree No. 20 of 1984 that was promulgated against the drug/substance abuse. Unfortunately, politicians looked at it as normal tools for campaigning.
The usage of drug/substance either by the youths or other members of the larger society in all its ramifications appears to be a social problem. This problem is widespread and it affects all and sundry. In other words, this wide spread use and abuse entice people from all walks of life and beyond the human destruction caused by drug/substance dependence is the damage to traditional values and lifestyles. Studies have also shown that drug/substance abuse wrecks the individual, shatter families and weakens the entire society with its burden of economic looses, health cost, increased lawlessness and crime. In addition, drug/substances undermines ability of youths to learn meaningfully.It also contradicts societal values of physical wellbeing.
People experiments with drug/substances because they seem to hold the promise of fulfillment. However, the fulfillment is generally elusive, since greater and greater quantities are consumed and ultimately the person suffers both physical and psychological deterioration. The drug/substance abuser also experiences problems of interaction and such interactional problem is encountered inside his immediate family and stress is invariably created in the family situation of drug/substance abuse (Hoffman, 1990).
Furthermore, drug/substance abuse may entail a lot o social problems ranging from lateness to lectures, family neglect, deviance behaviours, involvement in crime etc (Earl 2000). In terms of economic cost, it includes the more money required to deal with the undesirable effects of the drug/substance abuse, the less money for services and programmes that enhances the quality of life (Earl, 2000).
One of the factors militating against the eradication of drug/substance abuse among our youths is that of security agencies, such as the police force, and the National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies among others these have not done enough to check this scourge. Another factor militating against the eradication of drug/substance abuse among Nigerian youths is the problem of corruption among the men and women officials of these aforementioned agencies.
To this end and judging from the problems outlined earlier, this research was aimed at ascertaining the effect of drug/substance abuse on the youths of Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state, using Sango as a study area.
Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose of this study was to determine
The influence of drug/substances abused on youths in the society.
Specifically the study:
1. Found out the drug/substances that are commonly abused by youths in Ilorin metropolis.
2. Found out the implications for youths involvement on drug/substance abuse.
3. Determined the extent of drug/substances abuse by the youth in Ilorin Metropolis
4. Identified strategies/measures aimed at eradicating the drug/substance abuse problems among youths in Ilorin metropolis.
5. To ascertain the reasons why drug/substances are been abused by the youths in Ilorin metropolis.
The following research questions were answered:
1. What are the common drug/substances used by the youths in Ilorin metropolis?
2. What are the major reasons accountable for engagement of youths in drug/substance abuse in Ilorin metropolis?
3. What are the likely implications for youth’s involvement in drug/substance abuse? In Ilorin metropolis
4. What are the measures that should be used to eradicate drug/substance abuse among youths in Ilorin metropolis?
5. What extent do youths in Ilorin use drug/substance abuse?
Significance of the Study
The results of the study may help in creating awareness in the society on the general negative effects of drug/substance abuse on their health most especially the youths.
It could make youths to realize that excessive or even small intakes of these items (drug/substances) have inhibitory effects on their brain and general wellbeing.
The result of this study may also be used in making consumers to have a second thought before partaking in their uses.
This will go a long way in modeling their behavior which the general awareness has created.
Findings from this study may go a long way in reducing the numerous health problems encountered as a result of the misuse of drug/substances or the intake of hard drug/substances.
Result from the study could also help young researchers or educators in solving some problems of drug/substance abuse, thereby ensuring good health of the youths in general and social harmony in the society.
Finally, all the social ills in the society as a result of the effects of drug/substance abuse among the Youths in the society will be drastically minimized.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research work was carried out to investigate the effects of substance abuse among the youths in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state a case study of Sango area. The scope of this study is limited to drug/substance abuse by the youths of Sango area Ilorin during the period of this research work.
Definition of Terms
(a) Drug/substance: A drug/substance is a chemical substance capable of altering the physical and psychological function of the body such as India hem, Marijuana, cocaine etc.
(b) Abuse: This means the misuse or over use of something. It can also be described as the illegal use of something.
(c) Drug/substance Abuse: This is the misuse of drug/substances. It could be defined as the illegal use of substance which interferes with the human behavior.
(d) Effects: This could be defined as consequences. It is also the power to produce result.
(e) Youth: The period of existence preceding maturity or age; the whole early part of life, from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy to manhood..