EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND SCHOOL FACILITIES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SILAME LOCAL GOVERNMENT, SOKOTO STATE. ABSTRACT: The research was carried out in the three secondary schools in Silame Local Government, Sokoto state. The objectives of the study were to access the availability, utilization and effect of instructional materials and school facilities on students’ academic performance. The study sample was selected through simple random sampling technique. The data collection instruments were questionnaire and observation. One hundred and fifteen respondents were administered the questionnaire which include principals, teachers and students. The data analysis was done using statistical tools such as percentages, frequencies, means, correlation and scattered plot graph. Research result showed that the availability and adequacy of most of the instructional materials and school facilities and instructional materials were just a little. More so, utilization of most of the instructional materials and school facilities were also just a little. The correlation analysis for the relationship between Instructional materials and school facilities on students’ academic performance were significant (P<0.01) with a moderate positive relationship of 0.5 and 0.45 respectively. Inadequate and low quality instructional materials and school facilities in secondary school impedes effective teaching and learning process and hence affect students’ academic performance negatively.TABLE OF CONTENTSi. Title pageii. Certificationiii. Dedicationiv. Acknowledgementv. Table of contentsvi. AbstractChapter One: Introduction1.1 Background to the study1.2 Statement of the problem1.3 Purpose of the study1.4 Significance of the study1.5 Scope of the study1.6 Research questions1.7 Research hypothesis1.8 Operational definition of termsChapter two: Review of related literature2.1 Factors affecting the academic performance of students2.2 instructional materials 2.2.1 Types of instructional materials 2.2.2 Importance of instructional materials2.3 School facilities and students’ academic performance2.4 School environment and students’ academic performance Chapter Three: Methodology3.1 Research design3.2 Study area3.3 Population of the study3.4 Sample and sampling technique3.5 Instrument for data collection3.6 Validity of the instrument3.7 Reliability of the instrument3.8 Method of data collection3.9 Method of data analysis Chapter four: Results4.1 Availability and adequacy of instructional materials4.2 Availability and adequacy of school facilities4.3 Utilization of instructional materials4.4 Utilization of school facilities4.5 Effect of instructional materials on students’ academic performance4.6 Effect of school facilities on students’ academic performance4.7 Relationship between available instructional materials and students’ academic performance4.8 Relationship between available school facilities and students’ academic performance Chapter five: Discussionvii. Conclusion and recommendationsviii. ReferencesCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDYRelatively permanent change in behavior is the primary purpose of the teaching-learning process that occurs through experience in the learners’ environment. The desired change cannot manifest without the availability and proper use of instructional materials, school facilities and other needed resources.Regarding available school resources Ogunsaju (1980) emphasized that, quality of education that students receive depends on the availability of an overall school facilities in which teaching and learning takes place. Quality, relevance and access to education can be attained if and only if educational materials are properly available and utilized in an educational institution. Educational resources are means through which information is effectively communicated from the teacher to the learners. In the school settings, textbooks, all types of buildings (academic and non-academic), equipments, classroom facilities, furniture, instructional materials, audiovisual aids, toilet, computers, library and laboratory materials make up important school facilities that are required for effective learning.Buckley et al., (2004) states that school facilities enable the teacher to accomplish his/her task as well and help the learner to learn and achieve effectively. Additionally, they emphasized that the availability and proper use of school facilities can affect the interest of the teacher to teach effectively in turn that positively affects student’s academic achievement.Lawrence (2003) emphasized that the unavailability of school resources negatively affects staff and students motivation. A good school environment and adequate school facility have a significant positive effect on teacher’s motivation and student’s achievement. Furthermore, O’Neill (2000) described that school facility impacts on student achievement, attendance and teacher retention. Reyonds, et al., (1996) found that a negative impact on student achievement where school facilities. Adequate and quality school facilities are basic ingredients for quality education and to achieve the intended goal of the school program (Khan and Iqbal, 2012). They also strengthen the idea by emphasizing that learning is a complex activity that requires students and teachers’ motivation, adequate school facilities such as standardized buildings and classrooms with their facilities, instructional materials and equipment for child’s development.Students’ academic performance is the product of evaluation (formative or summative evaluation) after instruction has been passed by the teacher. Students’ academic performance is an aspect of education that has been and still is of great concern to parents, school managers, educational researchers and policy makers in both developing and developed nations (Makori and Onderi, 2013). There are many factors affecting the academic performance of students in Nigeria some of which include peer pressure, students’ poor study habit, examination malpractice, cultism, drug abuse, truancy, poor school infrastructure and instructional materials. Poor quality and inadequate instructional materials and educational facilities in schools are problems the parents, teachers, schools, school administrators, government at all levels and policy makers are responsible for. The resultant effects have been unfolding over the years in Nigeria in terms of continuous poor academic performance of students without prompt intervention by the stakeholders. Facilities provided in schools at all levels are rather inadequate to cater for the need of the ever increasing number of students. Poor quality of teachers and lack of constant training on how to effectively use and manage the available resource is adding to this woe.Nigeria remains a major defaulter in complying with the UNESCO recommendations that at least 26% of the National budget must be committed to education. The 2009 Federal government budget of N3 trillion has allocated only N183 billion to education. This translates to a mere 6% allocated to education. Osakwe (2009) pointed out that this is still below the UNESCO recommendation. These allocations were not quite adequate, as the institutions had not much to show in terms of rehabilitation for funds made available by the government (Umunadi, 2008).1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMThe persistent poor performance of secondary school students and continuous decline in quality of students for higher institutions in Nigeria are causing serious concern in education system. One of the major problems in secondary schools in Nigeria is lack of materials and equipment for teaching and learning. The terrible performance of students in examinations had been significantly ascribed to inadequate educational resources.Okoro (1998) pointed out that the facilities which include the buildings, equipment, tools and school materials available are inadequate for effective use in schools. Oranu (1990) revealed that lacks of physical facilities are the problems of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. On the problems existing in the schools and the system of education, it is lack of materials and necessary equipment in teaching science and technology subjects (Aromolaran, 1985).It is also not uncommon that facilities in most Nigerian public schools are dilapidated and inadequate to provide quality education service delivery (Sanusi, 1998). Afolabi (2002), reported that in Ondo state the classrooms in most of the schools were inadequate in terms of decency, space, ventilation and insulation from heat; the incinerators and urinal were not conveniently placed, and the school plant was poorly maintained; these combined deficiencies constituted a major gap in the quality of learning environment, thus the attendant result of non attainment of the set standards and goals in secondary schools.The deteriorating condition and poor maintenance of school infrastructure are threats to school management, curriculum delivery and students’ academic performance. This is evident as the results of Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by the West African Examination Council and the National Examination Council were extremely poor in Nigeria between 2007 and 2010.According to Fafunwa (2010), there is a big gap in quality, resulting from large number of students in crowded classrooms, using inadequate and obsolete equipment and with disillusioned teachers. These combined deficiencies perhaps constituted a major gap in the quality of learning infrastructure, thus, many challenges bear on teaching and learning that prevent the education system from getting the best out of its efforts to achieve the required level of attainment in teaching and learning activities in secondary schools.1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDYThe main purpose of the study is to examine the effects of instructional materials and educational facilities on the academic performance of students’ in secondary schools in Silame L. G., Sokoto state.The study specifically aims at finding out the following:1. The availability and adequacy of instructional materials and educational facilities in secondary schools in Silame L. G.A., Sokoto state.2. The utilization of instructional materials and educational facilities in secondary schools in Silame L. G.A., Sokoto state.3. The effects of instructional materials and educational facilities on the academic performance of students’ in secondary schools in Silame L. G.A., Sokoto state.1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThe findings of this study will provide useful information especially to the Sokoto state government and to the federal government at large. It will inform the Sokoto state government on how available and adequate instructional materials and educational facilities are in her secondary schools in Silame local government. This study will further enlighten the Sokoto state government on how the present condition of instructional materials and educational facilities in its schools are affecting the academic performance of students. It will provide insight into the areas of instructional materials and educational facilities that are most lacking in the schools and needs prompt intervention. This is because it is not enough for the government to supply these educational resources; it must meet specific need of the learners.The study will reveal how well teachers have been utilizing the available instructional materials and educational facilities. It will also determine problems encountered by teachers with the use of instructional materials and educational facilities for effective learning.The result of this study could provide school administrators / school principals some useful information or clues on possible causes and solutions to students’ poor academic performance. The information will perhaps prompt the school administrators to supervise more closely, the efficacious use of the available instructional materials and educational facilities and probably resolve into improvisation.1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDYThe study will investigate the effects of instructional materials and educational facilities on the academic performance of students’ in secondary schools in Silame L. G.A., Sokoto state. This will be carried out in all the three (3) secondary schools owned by the state in the local government. 1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe following research questions were raised to guide the study:1. To what extent are instructional materials and school facilities available and adequate in the schools?2. How well are the available instructional materials and school facilities utilized?3. What is the effect of the instructional materials and school facilities on the academic performance of the learners?4. What is the type of relationship between the available instructional materials and school facilities and students’ academic performance?1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESISThe following hypotheses will be tested at (p < 0.05) significance level:Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant relationship between the available instructional materials and students’ academic performance.Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant relationship between the available school facilities and students’ academic performance.1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMSLearning: Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience in the learners’ environment. Education: It is the process by which knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits are being acquired or transferred from one person to another.Instructional materials: It is the means through which information (knowledge, skills, and values) is being transferred to the students.School facilities: These comprise of physical infrastructures, machines and equipments within the school premises that support learning, convenience and aesthetics e.g. classroom, toilet, football field etc.Secondary school: It is a school that provides secondary education after primary school and before higher or tertiary school education.Academic performance: It is the extent to which the student has achieved the predetermined educational objectives after evaluation using examination or continuous assessment.Students: Is a person in a particular institute of learning who want to acquire knowledge, skills, value or competence..