This study focused on the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of Primary School Pupil in Kaduna State. Three objectives, research questions and hypotheses each were established, raised and formulated. The study adopted surveying method and a total of seventy teachers and three-hundred fifty pupils were involved. Two instruments were structural questionnaire and achievement test administered for the teacher and pupils respectively. The finding of the study revealed that, teacher experience, qualification, workshop, seminar and conference attendance significantly affected pupils‟ performance in academics leading to the rejection of all the three null hypotheses. Based on the finding, the study revealed that unqualified teachers significantly affected pupils‟ academic performance. It is recommended that experience teacher with requisite qualification and regular attendance of workshops, seminars and conferences be given priority. The study recommended that workshops, seminars be organized on regular basis to enable academics teachers keep abreast with contemporary happening in their areas of specialization. In addition, in-service training should be provided for academicteachers.





1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objective of theStudy

1.4 ResearchQuestions

1.6 ResearchHypotheses

1.6 Significance of Study

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Limitation of the Study

1.9 Definition of Terms



Conceptual Framework on Unqualified

teachers on TeachingMethods

Teacher asVariable

Method of teaching

Demonstration method

Discussion method

The Review of Related Empirical Studies

Teacher and Teaching



3.1. ResearchDesign

3.2. Population of the Study

3.3 Instrumentation

3.4 PilotStudy

3.6 Procedure for Data Collection

3.7. Statistical Analysis Procedure



Respondents’ PersonalInformation






Summary of theFinding






1.1      Background to the Study

The main impact of education in the society is the provision of knowledge that will integrate individuals and make them to be more meaningful individuals in the society who are capable of solving their problems. Qualified teachers have been seen as an effective instrument towards achieving this effective teaching. It is pertinent to mention here that ineffective and poor teaching in schools in Kaduna State and in Nigeria as a whole has continued to cause some havoc by shattering the hope and aspiration of some pupils, especially the ambitious ones. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), it demands that, the minimum acceptable qualification for teaching should be the National Certificate of Education (NCE). Up from the previous minimum of teachers certificate (Grade II), University graduates in disciplines other than education intending to make career out of teaching are required to obtain a Post-graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE).

Many teachers in sub- Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, are not able to apply modern information technologies in teaching due to computer illiteracy hence they mostly rely on lecture method of teaching (Eboutou et al., 1998; Haambokoma, 2002). Failure to expose learners to hands- on experiences has resulted in their low academic performance especially in the subjects like Mathematics, Basic Science, English, Basic Technology and Agriculture. A study by Adeogun (2001) found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers. Review of related literature indicates that the most important school based determining factor of pupils’ achievement is the teacher quality (Rivkin et al., 2005; Aaronson et al., 2007; Harris and Sass, 2008). Therefore, there is need to assess the characteristics of the primary school teachers in terms of qualification, experience and teaching methodology in order to ensure quality of education given to the pupils. The teachers should be in-serviced where gaps are identified to enable them to cope with the requirements of the dynamic school curriculum (Murunga et al., 2013).

Ebietomiye (2009) noted that the success of any human endeavour especially in the field of teaching is closely related to the quality of personnel who perform the tasks in the organization. Hence, the need to recruit and utilize professionally qualified teachers in enhancing good performance in primary School education is essential. Effective teaching is enhanced by well-trained and qualified teachers. The word “teacher” crudely connotes undifferentiated meaning to the extent that any individual that transmits ideas of whatever nature that cause a change or influence the behavioural pattern of the recipient is called a “teacher”. In a strict professional sense, Orstein (2005) sees a teacher as someone that must be professionally trained in a teachers’ training institution or faculty of education in the university, at the end of which he/she is certified to teach and is actually engaged in teaching. Ebietomiye (2009) corroborated this fact on who a professional teacher is. The implication is that, for a qualitative learning and improved academic performance to be ascertained, a qualitative teacher is imperative.

Government, guardians, educators, parents and society at large have been found to be constantly interested in the academic performance of their pupils (Lydiah and Nasongo, 2009). According to Adeyemi (2010), teachers play an important role in determining the pupils’ academic performance. There has never been a consensus by researchers on the particular teacher’s factors that influence pupils’ academic achievement (Rivkin et al., 2005). Study by Njeru and Orodho, (2003) revealed that teachers’ experience and educational qualifications have a significant influence on pupils’ academic achievement. When conducting research on factors contributing to under achievement of Zambian female pupils in OLevel Physics examinations, Maguswi (2011) found that lack of qualified teachers of Physics had a significant contribution. Moreover, a study done by Adaramola and Obomanu (2011) in Nigeria found that availability of unqualified teachers led to consistent poor performance of pupils in most science related subjects.

Orstein (2005) noted that to be a teacher, one must be vested with the objective and skill of teaching acquired through teachers’ institutions and through years of on the- job experience. It is therefore imperative that for any success to be recorded in the academic performance of primary school pupils, the issue of teachers’ professionalism and qualification must not be handled with levity hand. The purpose of this study therefore is to investigate effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. To find out whether the pupils taught by National Certificate in Education (NCE) holders or Bachelor in Education (B.Ed) certificate holders performed better than their counterparts taught either by holders of Higher National Diploma (HND) or Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in their subject areas.

1.2      Statement of the Problem

Teachers are considered as the main pills of our educational system. The personal and professional development of teachers puts direct impact on pupil achievement. In government schools teachers are very old but academic course change every year. No proper trainings are conducted to update the knowledge of the teacher, still having low qualification and use the typical style to teach the pupils. Mostly teachers know little or nothing about the new concepts included in the new curriculum. Unqualified teachers are recruited who cannot manage the process of teaching and learning in schools effectively which is reflection in the poor performances of pupils and consequently brings dissatisfaction among parents regarding the performance of government schools. This is especially worrying because poor instruction and ineffective teaching reduces the demand for education which in turn reduces the pool of qualified teachers.

For many years in Kaduna State, Nigeria, there has been concern about the problems faced by most teachers in primary schools. The problems include: poor teaching techniques, insufficient training, inadequate facilities provided by the government and inappropriate communications language. It is in view of this, the researcher therefore aimed at looking into the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.3 Objective of theStudy

The research study aimed to investigate the effect of unqualified teachers on the academic performance of Primary School pupils in Kaduna State. The present study sets out to achieve the following objectives:

i. To find out whether unqualified teachers affects Primary School pupil’s academic performance in Kadunastate.

ii. Whether teachers‟ experience in teaching affects Primary pupils‟ academic performance in Academics, in Kadunastate

iii. Whether teacher attending workshops, seminars and conferences affect Primary School Pupils‟ academic performance in Academics in the state.

1.4 ResearchQuestions

The study attempts to find out answers to the following questions:

1.4.1 Do unqualified teachers affect primary school pupil’s academic performance in Academics in Kadunastate?

1.4.2 Does teacher’s experience affect primary school pupils‟ performance in Academics in KadunaState?

1.4.3 Do teacher’s training/attendance of workshops, seminars and conferences affects primary school pupils‟ academic performance in Academics in thestate?

1.5 ResearchHypotheses

Based on the above research questions, the researcher stated the following as the research hypotheses:

Ho1 There is no significant relationship between unqualified teachers and pupil‟s academic performance in Primary School pupils in Kaduna State.

Ho2. There is no significance relationship between the teachers‟ teaching experience and their pupils‟ academic performance in Academics in Kaduna state.

Ho3 There is no significant relationship between teacher’s attendance of workshop/seminar/conferences and pupils‟ academic performance in Academics.

1.6   Significance of Study

This study will be useful to both teachers and pupils who may want to know the factors that could make or mar pupil’s academic performance. Understanding classroom climate variables will allow for professional developments for teachers in focus on areas to increase pupil achievement. Understanding the importance of teachers and their impact on pupil performance will help school administrators at primary schools retain teachers to make their teachings pupil centered. The study findings would also guide schools’ management committees to employ school teachers who have the right mix of different teacher characteristics and is expected to assist physics teachers in the teaching of physics to enhance pupils’ achievement. This research will contribute to existing knowledge in entrepreneurship education literature, by developing an intention model that will be useful for researchers in undertaking further research on related areas of study.

1.7   Scope of the Study

This study investigates the effect of unqualified teachers on academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. It will therefore cover four selected primary schools pupils from the Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern areas of the Local Government. The variables of interest would be unqualified teachers and academic performance. While unqualified teacher is the independent variable, academic performance is the dependent variable.

1.8   Limitation of the Study

Limitation of the study is an aspect of the study which the researchers knows that may affect the authenticity of the result but over which the researcher has no control, in other words, something is not as good as it should be, but the researcher cannot do anything about it. The limitations include:

1. The method of data collection reduced the authenticity of data collected. Triangulation is necessary through the use of other methods of data collection such as observation, rating, scale, questionnaire, interviews and so on.

2. Time constraints, the study was carried out in only four schools in Kaduna South, Local Government Area of Kaduna State due to inadequate time for the researcher to carry out the research and also focus on his/her academic

1.9   Definition of Terms

The following terms were used during the cause of the study.

Academic Performance: Scores attained in form one end of year examination.

Universal Basic Education Commission means committee responsible for co-ordinating and implementation of the programme (universal basic education) at the states and local Governments through the state universal basic education commission of each state and local Government education authorities, the commission was established on 7th Oct., 2004.

Unqualified Teachers means teachers posting to schools lacking the proper, necessary or required qualification to handle teaching activities and other school responsibilities effectively.

National Certificate on Education means a certificate examination awarded to an individual who attends and passes the required skills, qualified to teach in both primary and primary schools educational levels.



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