THE EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS


THE EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI

ABSTRACT

The study examines the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of Benue State University students. With the following specific set objectives: to find out the level of drug abuse among BSUstudents, to ascertain the types of drugs that are mostly abuse among students of Benue State University, the causes of drug abuse among students of Benue State University, the effect of drug abuse among undergraduate students of Benue State University and possible solutions to the menace of drug abuse among undergraduate students of Benue State University. The theoretical framework adopted was on differential association theory and structural strain theory. Thestudy was a descriptive survey research. Findings from this study revealed that, majority of the respondents believe the level of drugabuse among students of Benue State University is moderate. On the drugs that are mostly abuse by students of Benue State University, the study findings reveal that majority of the respondents believe that alcohol is the most common type of drug abuse by students of BenueState University. On the causes of drug abuse among students of BenueState University, study results show that majority of the respondents believe peer pressure is the cause of drug abuse among students of Benue State University. On the effects of drug abuse among students in Benue State University. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents believe examination malpractice is the effect of drug abuse among students of Benue State University. Onpossible solutions to the menace of drug abuse among Undergraduate Students of Benue State University. The result findings indicatesthat, majority of the respondents believe proper orientation of students can help solve the problem of drug abuse among students ofBenue State University. Base on the results of the study, it concludes that, Drugs are a source of medication and treatment for variousillness and preventive disease if properly prescribe by medicalprofessionals. But drugs wrongly use without medication prescription

has negative consequences for the academic, social, psychological and physical development of students. Furthermore, the study recommends

that, , there should be proper orientation of students on the dangers

associated with drug abuse. This should be embark upon by departmental

heads, student union government and all registered associations and

clubs on campus in their orientation programmes organize for fresher’s

as this will enable them avoid the take of illicit drugs. Also,

counseling services should be provided by counseling unit of our

Nations institutions of higher learning to students already addicted

with the social problem of drug abuse in order to reduce the level of

their intake and help them recover from its effects on their academic

loss.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Contents                                                                                          page

Title page----------------------i

Declaration ---------------------------ii

Approval--------------------------------iii

Dedication-----------------------------------iv

Acknowledgement-----------------------------v

Table of Contents----------------------------vi

List of Tables ------------------------------vii

Abstract---------------------------------ix

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Research Questions

Aim and objectives of the study

Research Hypothesis

Significance of the Study

Scope of the Study

Definition of Concepts

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Research Questions

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

Research Hypotheses

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.6      The Scope of the Study

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Concept of Drug

2.3 The Concept of Drug Abuse

2.4 The Level of Drug Abuse among Students in Nigeria

2.5 Reasons that propel Students to engage in Drug Abuse in Nigeria

2.6 Types of Drugs Commonly Abused by Undergraduate Students in Nigeria

2.7 Effects of Drug Abuse on the Academic Performance of Students in Nigeria

2.8 Possible Solutions of Drug Abuse among Students in Nigeria

2.9 Theoretical Framework

2.9.1 Differential Association Theory

2.9.2 Structural Strain Theory

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2Design of the Study

3.3 Study Setting

3.4 Population of Study

3.5 Sample/Sampling Procedure

3.6 Sample Size Determination

3.7 Method of Data Collection

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

3.9 Limitations of the Study

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

4.3 The Level, types, causes , effects  and Possible Solutions to the

Menace of Drug abuse among Students of Benue State University

4.4 Test of Hypotheses

4.5 Discussion of findings

CHAPTTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

INDEX

References

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

INDEX------------------------------------------44

References------------------------------------------44

Research Questionnaire------------------------------48

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.2: Socio-Demographic Variables of Respondents

Table 4.3 Respondents views on the Level of Drug Abuse among BSU        Students

Table 4.3.1 Respondents views on the Drugs that are Mostly Abuse by

        Students of Benue State University

Table 4.3.2 Respondents views on the Causes of Drug Abuse among

        Students of Benue State University

Table 4.3.3 Respondents views on the Effects of Drug Abuse among

Undergraduate Students in Benue State University

Table 4.3.4 Respondents views on Possible Solutions to the Menace of

Drug    Abuse among Undergraduate Students of Benue State University

Table 4.4 There is a significant relationship between drug abuse and

academic performance of undergraduate students

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Since the early times, herbs, leaves and plants inform of drugs have

been used to heal and control diseases. Plants have been utilized as

medicines for thousands of years.  The specific plants to be used and

the methods of application for particular ailments were passed down

through oral history from generation to generation (Samuelsson, 2004).

The use of drugs in itself does not constitute any danger, because

drugs correctly administered have been a blessing. Falco (1988) as

cited by Sambo (2008) asserts that, chronic use of substances can

cause serious irreversible damage to adolescent’s physical and

psychological development. The use of drugs could be beneficial or

harmful depending on the mode of use.

Apart from knowing the harmful effects of substance abuse, various

studies have pointed out that among the reasons students abuse drugs

are: for experimental purpose, curiosity, peer and family influence,

lack of parental supervision, personality problems, socioeconomic

issues, need for extra energy for work, to build up confidence,

frustration, to achieve happiness, to reduce fear, drug availability,

need to maintain drug habit in order to avoid withdrawal syndrome, to

feel good, to relieve stress, to sleep, to keep awake, to enhance

sexual performance, age, unemployment, poverty, and for no reason.

With the increasing rate of substance abuse, an increasing rate of

violence has been observed among high school and university students.

Among the highest in the drugs abused by undergraduates in a northern

Nigerian university, are: cigarette, brewed alcohol, locally brewed

alcohol, kolanut, apsirin and cananbbis (Essien, 2010).

        Cannabis is by far the most commonly used illicit drug among world

population followed by tobacco (Essien, 2010). In the United Kingdom,

cross-sectional studies have shown that a substantial number of

students used illicit drugs, mainly cannabis, at some time during

their lives (Oshodi, Aina&Onajole 2010)

        The motive behind drug abuse may be sociological, psychological, out

of curiosity, boredom, to alleviate fear, derive sexual and physical

pleasures, or family background. Despite the fact that drug abuse has

adverse effects on the youths by changing their brain perception of

difficulties and problems, the number of undergraduates that use or

abuse stimulants has steadily increased in recent years (Alan, 2003)

Also, some University students who experience dissatisfaction with

life due to anger, frustration, academic failure and boredom, consume

alcohol to fit in and serve as a consolation. This invariably affects

their academic performance hence hours that should be use for study

are diverted to rest and sleep after its consumption (Alan, 2003).

        Efforts of Nigerian National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and

other governmental agencies to stem the tide of drug abuse in Nigeria

has been meet with stiff resistance of users at different places

across the nation thereby increasing the incidence of drug abuse cases

in spite of their continued and destruction of such illicit drugs, the

rapid rise in the number of cases of drug abuse among youths whom are

mostly students is still on the increase. (Akinyemi 2008). Hence the

need for the present study which is to determine the effects of drug

abuse on the academic performance of Benue State University students.

1.2 Statement of the problem

A report by National Agency for Food Drug Administration and Control

NAFDAC (2008) noted that the abuse of licit and illicit drugs is

forming a student sub-culture in Nigeria. This development is a

significant concern for Nigerian society. When a drug is abused it

causes injury to the brain and often irreversible alterations in the

central nervous systems. When psychoactive substances destroy several

thousand neurons, the consequences are fatal and a number of students

end up under performing in their academics when under the control of

this mode stimulating and controlling substance and some have died

from drug overdoses (Ekpenyong, 2012).

The increasing availability of a variety of drugs to an ever widening

socio-economic spectrum of consumers is disconcerting. Prescription

and over the counter buying of drugs are abused when taken without the

specified medical condition and proper prescription. Some of these

drugs can be mood elevators, pain killers or antidepressants.

Prescription drugs are drugs that are certify by a medical

practitioner as a source of cure for ailment.

Drug abuse has negative impact on the education of students all over

the world. The overall health of the user is affected negatively and

behaviours associated with drug abuse predispose the abuser to crime

and contagious diseases including HIV/AIDS (Centre for Disease

Control, 2000). Drug abuse has thus become a national concern in

Nigeria, given its impacts on education and future leadership,

innovations and human resources. Students are particularly at risk

given that they are in their formative years of education, career

development, social skills and identity formation.

Despite National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control

NAFDAC/NDLEA and other organization-based interventions, drug abuse is

on the rise with over 40% of students abusing various types of drugs

(Ekpenyong, 2012). Drug abuse appears to be a well entrenched

behaviour among students. Drug abuse has become a threat to the lives

and success of the youth. This is evidently a source of sorrow to

parents, guardians and relatives. It is also a big challenge to the

whole nation. Substance and drug abuse affect academic performance and

mental health, cause physiological and psychiatric disturbances and

have been perceived to be the major cause in poor academic performance

of students, physical health problem, poor finance, emotional

problems, memory impairment, risk factor for most chronic diseases,

problems with family relationships and so forth.

The consequence of chewing kola nut, taking bland coffee and other

substances that enhance one to stay awake at night could lead to

addiction and substance abuse which may result in negative health

implications and adversely affect performance in examination contrary

to the expectation of students who take it to stay awake and read at

night. Drug abuse has some educational, social, economic,

psychological, cultural, physical and moral health consequences that

may lead to low academic performance, poverty, disability,

maladjustment or death of the abusers. Its use aid crime rate,

cultism, mental illness, low self-esteem and self-respect, injuries to

one’s health, becoming a social outcast, bringing shame to their kin

and low academic performance and in some instances complete withdrawal

from school.

The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of drug abuse

and academic performance of undergraduate students of Benue State

University Makurdi. Literature review by (Ekpenyong, 2012; Larissa et

al 2013; & Johnston et al 2003) has shown that studies has been

conducted on the effect of drug abuse and academic performance of

undergraduate students in developed countries and even in other parts

of Nigeria and Benue State in the time past. Beside, some literatures

have shown contradictory views regarding the effect of drug abuse and

academic performance of undergraduate students as other studies found

a negative effect of drug abuse on academic performance while other

studies found no effect of drug abuse on academic performance of

undergraduate students.

 It is therefore due to the lack of current research regarding the

subject matter in the area of the study as well as the contradictory

view regarding the findings that the present research seeks to explore

the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of Benue State

University students.

1.3 Research Questions

The general research question is what are the effects of drug abuse on

the academic performance of undergraduate students? The specific

questions are:

What is the level of drug abuse among BSU students?

What are the reasons that propel students to engage in drug abuse?

What are the types of drugs commonly abused by undergraduate students

of Benue State University?

What are the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of

undergraduate students of Benue State University?

What are the possible solutions of drug abuse among undergraduate

students of Benue State University Makurdi?

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this research is to determine the effects of drug abuse on

academic performance of undergraduate students of Benue State

University, Makurdi. Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

Determine the level of drug abuse among BSU students

Examine the drugs that are mostly abuse among undergraduate students

of Benue State University.

Ascertain the causes of drug abuse among undergraduate students of

Benue State University.

To investigate the effect of drug abuse among undergraduate students

in Benue State University.

To proffer possible solutions to the menace of drug abuse among

undergraduate students of Benue State University.

Research Hypotheses

Ho. There is no significant relationship between drug abuse and

academic performance of undergraduate students.

Ha. There is a significant relationship between drug abuse and

academic performance of undergraduate students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research work is significant in various ways; First and foremost

this research will help in creating awareness on the need to shun acts

that are capable of leading to drug abuse among youths and students in

Nigeria. It will also help and be a valuable source of academic and

policy material on the existing body of knowledge on the subject of

drug abuse in Nigeria and its academic affect among students as other

researchers can as well build and borrow a leaf from it while carrying

out similar research. The research work will also help and assist in

strengthening the Drug Law Enforcement Agency Act as enshrine in the

constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria (1999) as amended and

its recommendations if properly implemented will go a long way in

curtailing the menace of drug abuse in our society.

Finally, it will serve as a guide to both parents, students,

academicians, institutions, researchers and the government in

formulating policies that will help curb the menace of drug abuse and

misuse in our society.

1.6      The Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to Benue State University Makurdi

and is on the effects of drug abuse and academic performance of Benue

State University students. The study is conforming to the university

environment because of its academic importance and will be carried out

from 2002-2012. However, this research is limited to Benue State

University because of the short time within which this research work

is to conducted and lack of financial constrain of the researcher to

cover the entire state and Nigeria by extension.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Drug: A drug refers to a substance that could bring about a change in

the biological function through its chemical actions. It is also

considered as a substance that modifies perceptions, cognition, mood,

behaviour and general body functions. A drug can also be defined as

any substance, which is used for treatment or prevention of disease in

man and animals. It also entails any licit or illicit substance that

when swallowed, smoked, sniffed or injected influences the function

and operation of the body and mind.

Drug Abuse: Drug abuse is the taking of drugs or a deliberate use of

drugs for purposes other than its intended purpose without the

supervision of a physician or a medical practitioner. It also refers

to the misuse or wrong use of drugs which have adverse effects on the

central nervous system, mind, mood, behaviour and personality of the

individual. Also, it is the use of any drug to the point where it

interferes with an individual’s health or with his economic or social

adjustment. Drug abuse also involves self-administration of drug in a

manner that deviates from the approved medical and social patterns

within a given culture.

Academic performance: Academic performance is the outcome of

education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution have

achieve their educational goal. It also describe as how well one does

in school and the achievement he/she get. Poor academic performance

entails bad grades while the desired acaedemic performance is good

grades.

.

THE EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS



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