THE ROLE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EDO STATE
This study was carried out to highlight the role of vocational education in economic development in Edo State.
Chapter one gave the insight into the background of vocational education courses, which are geared towards self-reliance or self-employment while related literature was review in chapter two. The chapter three described the design and methodology.
If treated the significance, purpose and problems of this study including the research question, which were administered, and the result analyzed in chapter four. The study was then summarized in chapter five and from the results in chapter four, conclusion and recommendations were made.
It is observed that students generally lack the zeal, interest and aptitude in learning vocational and technical education courses. To accomplish this, three departments were randomly selected in School of Education, Ekiadolor Benin and they numbered one hundred.
The instrument used in collecting data was the questionnaire for the students alone without the teachers. Simple percentage was used to analyze data collected from this response.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
Background of study
Statement of the problem
Objective of study
Significance of study
Scope and Limitations of the study
Definition of terms
Review of literature
- Non-availability of finance to set up new Vocational and Technical Schools
- Non-availability of Staff and Personnel
- The Economic Role for Vocational Education
- Contribution of the home in students up bringing
- Impact of Government Participation in Vocational Education Schools
- Availability of Guidance and Counseling in Vocational Education Schools
- Vocational Education Courses As Career Aspects of Vocational and Technical Education
- Creating Technological Values
Design of the study
Population and sample
Validity of the instrument
Administration of questionnaire
Method of data analysis
Data analysis and interpretation
Summary, conclusion and recommendations
Summary of findings
Suggestions for further research
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1- Non-availability of finance
Table 2–Vocational education is really helping individuals to be self-reliance or self-employed.
Table 3 – Non-availability of staff
Table 4 – Inadequate infrastructural facilities
Table 5 – Government education
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
According to Akenbi (2000) vocational education is the acquisition of basic skills, which enable an individual to be gainfully employed in any sectors of the economy. For any country to obtain any level of development, vocational education must be put into consideration. Western education started in Nigeria when the Christian missionaries came up with during this period, they were mostly interested in teaching the word of God, converting souls and preaching the gospel. Some people were not able to follow; some could not walk, see or hear therefore they were not part of the education. So they were taught how to make basket and this occupied.
Arms are being given to the handicap to keep them alive and to make them feel at home. Before the arrival of the missionary, vocational training had started at home, children helping their mothers to cook, boys helping their father at farm. The colonial administration participated in vocational/technical education given as a separate plan outside that vocational education involves such field as agricultural education, business education, marketing or distributive education, trade and industrial education.
Vocational education comprises of vocational and technical training, which is given in schools a class under public supervision and control. The development of skills is perhaps the foundation on which vocation education is laid the assertion has been authorize to the unanimous agreement of the three groups sample to the fact that vocational education is designed to develop skills abilities understanding and attitude of individuals. This agrees with the definition of committee on research and publication of American vocation association (1954). The primary purpose of embarking on skill development is to enable some one to do some work.
Olatain (1984) says vocational education refers to systematic learning experience, which are designed to enable individuals for gainful employment in recognized occupation as semi skilled workers or technical or professionals. It equally included guidance and counselling in connecting with training and other instruction directly related through an occupation.
The benefits derives from various vocational education cannot be over emphasized. It is the pride of the nation to develop more vocational education in order to activate maximum technologically.
Thorp et al (1930) in their reports they expressed the view that the aim and objective of vocational education are as follows;
a. The aim of technical education must be to provide or the requirements of industry, commerce and society and to adjust itself to the changing needs of the territory. The curriculum and organization must be adopted to meet national and local demands and must not adhere to firm and immutable forms.
b. Large number of men and women engaged in industry and commerce and in professional and auxiliary, occupation lack the specialized knowledge and training which would allow them to be efficient in their vocation and fit to accept greater resp0onsibility, the course must be arranged so they can improve their knowledge and efficiency while continuing employment.
c. Special attention must be given to the training of teachers and personnel and for institutions engaged into training of teachers particularly for secondary schools and technical institutions and for institutions engaged in the training of primary school teachers also for person engaged in social activities such as youth and community center work or in community development generally.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Vocational education has been known as a veritable discipline for the attainment of self-reliance and can be seen in different dimensions. The various skills acquisition centres in the state are expected to produce manpower at craftsmanship and apprenticeship levels. And it has been ascertained that facilities, staff, finance etc are either lacking or not sufficiently provided to achieve the expected desires. Although many technical schools and other skill acquisition centre like college of education, polytechnics are available in Edo state for the above purposes what is not clear now is that to what extent is “vocational education helping in economic development of Edo state”.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of study is to investigate the problems facing vocational education in the state. This is also to investigate the problems that lead to the non-progress, inefficiency and even to the total collapse education schools or vocational training centre, which sprang up some years back.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study will be of great importance to this development of new and old schools of vocational and technical education in Edo state. This study will also contribute immensely to the exploration of the vocation education in schools in Edo state and suggest possible solution to the problems identified.
More so it will be significant to heads and director of the existing vocation and technical education schools because it will expose other unnecessary roles and problems that led to the total collapse of subsequent vocational and technical schools in order to avoid them and ensure efficiency and maximum prosperity.
The following research questions was asked for the purpose of identifying inherent obstacles towards the attainment of the above.
1. Is non-availability of finance affecting the development of vocational education in the state.
2. Is vocational education really helping individual to be self-reliance?
3. Are inadequate infrastructural facilities affecting the development of vocational education?
4. Is government impacting vocational education really helping teachers and students?
5. Is non-availability of staff or teachers affecting the development of vocational education?
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Vocational education is the activities, which aim at acquiring the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are required for employment in a particular occupation. Is also a form of education that promotes and encourages the dignity of labour and related competences.
Vocational education also offers opportunities for gainful employment even without further studies after junior and senior secondary school.
The National Policy of Education of 1998 defined vocational education as that form of education which is obtainable at the technical college which is equivalent to the senior education but designed education to prepare individual to acquire skills.
Vocational education is also concern with activities, which aim at acquiring the skills, knowledge which also requires craft man.
Economic development means more than economic growth, therefore economic development refers to an increase (or expansion) of the national income or total volume of production of goods and services of a country accompanied by improvement in the social, political and economic lives of the people inhabiting that country.
The vocational education in economic development is also concern with occupations or a function in a field of economic activity including business, agriculture, hotel, catering, fine and applied arts, tourist industries, private and public services etc.
In this regard, vocational education is regarded as the experience gained directly or indirectly, which enables one to participate in a useful and social occupation either in or out of school at various levels and to be sufficiently equipped to become an intelligent consumer of goods and services.