1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria which carries the connotation of the largest country in Africa in terms of the population size of the country. The size of the country comprises various languages and ethnicity, which should be a blessing to the country but it gives some societal menace to the environment (Dalhat, 2016). The largest population of this country ranges from teenagers and youths which signifies a bright future for the country at large looking at the next 10 years to be a force to reckon with in the world at large (Dalhat, 2016). The problem that is most threatening that Nigeria faces is the rampant issues of begging that goes own majorly in the Northern area of the country. This menace of begging has instilled laziness and lack of creativity to productive ends in the teenagers in the geographical location. Bizarrely, this menace has dented the Muslim religion and projected that the religion permits and gives room to begging in the country (Dalhat, 2016).

In Nigeria, the history of begging cannot be traced to a particular tribe or ethnicity but the act of begging has been in existence event she gained her independence. The Mabaretas contributed to the spreading of professional begging in the country. The Mabaretas are those people that live their life based on begging money from people (Amman, 2009). The societal decadence of begging has been in existence since civilization and has many variables and causes based on different cultural contexts (Bukoye, 2014). Begging has been in existence since the Byzantine era (Johnny, 2008). The issue of street begging by children has been documented and happening as far back as the period of 1848. In Solvent Russia, England in 1918 and 1920 and Dublin (Bukoye, 2014).

The cankerworm of begging has become a socio-economic and physical problem for most cities in Nigeria both in the southern and northern regions of the country. The street in this region is experiencing increasing the different modules of beggars in the various streets. The modules of these beggars can either mental incapacity or disability of the first order (Ojo and Benson, 2017).  This circumstance has made the beggars take advantage of the urban area in the society, which they are now permanents residents (illegal or legal) in the locations. Studies have shown that even when these beggars are provided for and are taken away from the street via through rehabilitation or through legal enforcement one tends to still encounter them on the street again (Esan, 2009)

The menace of street begging among children in some areas is associated with the growth of the cities, high-level of drought, and famine occurring in their domain which makes them locate to find green pastures. Other factors include poverty and socio-economic problems of the family the children grew in and from (Ojo and Benson, 2017). Begging is an act done by requesting from a person one encounters money, food, shelter to satisfy himself or herself. Mudasir (2010) depicts that begging is a social problem that is the development of the inferiority complex in the children begging and also dent their family members' image. Brown (2010) depicts that begging as anti-social to almost all the nations of the world most especially the emerging and developing nations of the country.

Based on the different propositions of the cause of children begging by different scholars this study intends to fill that gap by evaluating the impact of street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The menace of begging is a global phenomenon that is not country-specific. It is a city-centric issue that is almost visible to a different city in the world. However, the cankerworm of begging is a holistic problem that is visible to all countries but most especially developing countries in the world. Street beggars are visible to be seen in churches, mosques, mini-marts, banks, restaurants, and filling stations. The menace of begging baggage along with some vices like theft, vandalism, and thuggery (Adedibu & Jelili, 2011; Tambawal, 2010; Ogunkan & Fawole, 2009).

The negative problem of begging is a common attribute in almost all urban areas in Nigeria, even though it is significantly at an increasing rate in some other parts of the country (Namwata et al., 2010). The phenomenon of street begging is a problem due to the following factors which include poverty, religion, physical disability, culture, national disaster, civil war, bad habits, family heritage, and psychiatric disabilities (Amman, 2006; Ogunkan & Fawole, 2009; Namwata et al., 2011).

Based on the continuous revolving of children in the region, this study intends to fill the gap between street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis in Nigeria.

1.3 Objective of the Study

This study intends to study the effect of street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis. The specific objective of the study include;

1.      To identify the extent of street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis.

2.      To examine the factors responsible for street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis

3.      To identify the effect of street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis

4.      To explore the various strategies  of managing street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis

1.4 Research Question

1.      What is the extent of street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis?

2.      What are the factors contributing to street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis

3.      What is the effect of street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis

4.      To explore the various strategies of managing street begging among children in Sokoto Metropolis

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be of significance to the following stakeholders which include; Parents and Guardians, Citizens, and the Ministry of health.

The Parents and guardians will from the findings of this study be able to know the factors that enhance children begging in Sokoto state and also have at hand the causes and solutions to the menace in their locality.

Citizens which are the people living in the Metropolis, will from the findings know the causes and effects of children begging in the city. They will also have first-hand knowledge of the solution that can aid them to stop and reduce drastically the phenomenon of begging in society at large.

The ministry of health will from the study know the exact policy that should be structured that will aid to correct the increasing rate of street begging of children in the Metropolis of Sokoto.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will use the Sokoto Metropolis as the study area where the questionnaire will be distributed through the use of an enumerator to the children, so has to draw out vivid data from the respondent. The study will employ a descriptive survey design. The study will also make use of frequency distribution, percentage, and simple linear regression to analyze the secondary data that will be sourced from the respondent.

1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Street Begging; it is the act of request for arms from a person at the open area where eyes can see the person requesting.

Children; these are the infant that range between the age of 2-5 years of age

Metropolis; these are capital cities in a geographical location occupied by the citizen or people



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