EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LOCUS OF CONTROL AS PREDICTORS OF TEACHERS’ INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA
The study determined emotional intelligence and locus of control as predictors of teachers’ instructional leadership models in secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria. Seven research questions were answered while four null hypotheses were tested at p ≤ 0.05 level of probability. The design was a correlation design.
The population of the study is 4,516 teachers consisting of 1,407 males and 3,109 females in the public junior secondary schools in Enugu State. The sample for the study was 903. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for the study. Three instruments: Teachers’ Instructional Leadership Rating Scale (TILRS), Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale (TEIRS) and Teachers’ Locus of Control Rating Scale (TLCRS) were developed and used for the study. The TILRS, TEIRS and TLCRS were face validated by three specialists in the field of study. Cronbach Alpha method was used to determine the internal consistency reliability of the items which yielded a reliability estimate of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.79 respectively. The researcher administered the instruments with the help of six research assistants. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions one to three, whereas Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson r) was used to answer the research questions four to seven. Linear and multiple regressions analysis and t-test statistic were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of probability. Results indicated that majority of the teachers perceived themselves as having high emotional intelligence whereas few teachers had low emotional intelligence; majority of the teachers rated themselves as having internal locus of control while few teachers had external locus of control; most of the teachers were authoritative, some of the teachers were authoritarian while few teachers were permissive in their instructional leadership models. Emotional intelligence significantly predicted teachers’ instructional leadership models. Locus of control significantly predicted teachers’ instructional leadership models. Gender of teachers predicted significantly teachers’ instructional leadership models and emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender of teachers significantly predicted teachers’ instructional leadership models. The educational implication of the study is that if the findings of the study are made available to teachers, it would help them in teaching irrespective of their emotional intelligence and locus of control. It was recommended that school administrators organize workshops or seminars for teachers on the relationship among emotional intelligence, locus of control and teachers’ instructional leadership models, teacher preparation institutions should incorporate instructional leadership models in the relevant areas of their curriculum units to expose both the pre-service and in-service teachers to the prediction effect of emotional intelligence and locus of control on teachers’ instructional leadership models, male and female teachers should be exposed to training on the extent emotional intelligence and locus of control can predict instructional leadership models without discrimination among others.
Background of the Study
Recently, the reports of poor academic achievement of students especially in secondary schools has raised more attention and greater concerns among stakeholders in Nigerian education. Academic achievement or academic performance is the outcome of education, that is the, extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals (Ward, Stoker, & Murray-Ward, 2000). Academic achievement is commonly measured by continuous assessment or examination but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects is most important, whether procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts (Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011). Irrespective of the method of academic measurement, Isangedighi (1999) observed that indiscipline, drug addiction, poor socio-economic background of the parents, inadequate motivation on the part of students, lack of information couple with teachers’ nonchalant attitude to work and students’ negative self-concept have often resulted into students’ inconsistent and poor academic performances. Yoloye (1999) submitted that theories of educational disadvantages and social cultural pathology have been most prominent in the explanation of poor academic achievement of students in schools. On the contrary, a growing number of scholars, have rejected this latter view and have suggested that many of the problems of learning are the artifacts of discontinuities which are brought about by the separation of learning from real life functions and situations (Fagbemi, 2001) and by the exclusion of the child’s language, values and mode of cognition from the school environment (Ugodulunwa, 2007). It seems that the causes of low academic achievement are diverse and cannot be associated with a single factor alone. For in-stance, Adamu (1998) observed that self-concept and its variables may be a paramount factor in academic failure. Tukur & Musa (2001) attributed the causes of fluctuating performances among students to teacher-student inter-actions, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, classroom behavior and other extraneous variables. The above may be responsible for the academic achievement of students in the area of the study.
In Enugu State, the academic achievement of secondary school students has been observed to be generally poor. A look at the West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination results in the past eight years (2005-2012) shows clearly the declining state of secondary school students’ achievements in external examinations in the state. The West African Certificate Examinations Councils’ (WAEC) result analysis has it that in 2005, only 27.53% of candidates who sat for the senior secondary school certificate exanimation had five credit passes and above including English Language and Mathematics (WAEC, 2010).The same trend continued in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011and 2012 where only 15.56%, 25.54%, 13.76%, 25.99%, 24.94%, 30.99% and 25.76% of candidates respectively obtained five credit passes including English Language and Mathematics, which are the minimum entry requirement for admission into Nigerian Universities.
It is believed that many factors could be responsible for the poor achievements of the students in external examinations in the State. Such factors may range from the nature of school administration, environment, to the qualification and teachers’ characteristics such as emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender. Ali (2004) observed that there was statistically significant relationship between teacher characteristics and students’ academic achievement. The author further explained that teachers’ characteristics are strong determinants of students’ achievement in secondary schools. Teachers have a lot of influence on the classroom practices. Teachers are expected to apply specific abilities without which their influence may not be reflected on their students’ achievement in the subject. These characteristics are very influential in students’ learning experiences and critical in determining the extent of students’ achievement. This means that teachers’ emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender may predict teachers’ instructional leadership model which in turn determines students’ achievement since teachers provide the vital human connection between the content, environment and learner. It becomes necessary to examine such teacher characteristics as emotional intelligence and locus of control determine the extent they predict teachers’ instructional leadership model in secondary schools.
Leadership is very vital in every organization for the effective management of human and material resources required for the achievement of organizational objectives. Railey (2000) defined leadership as the act of guiding or directing others to a course of action through persuasion or influence. According to Bush (2003), leadership is the process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals. It is a relational attribute which emphasizes the behaviour of the person leading in terms of the behaviour of the person being led. Leadership in the context of this study refers to the process whereby the teacher exercises authority over the students in the classroom and co-ordinates the students’ activities toward achieving set educational goals. Leadership is not a mere exertion of brute power over those who are led. It demands qualities which make it possible for the leader to exercise authority beyond that guaranteed by virtue of the position.
Leadership is of fundamental importance in any system such as educational institutions. Arinze (2011) postulated that a good leader manages resources efficiently to achieve goals; provides sense of direction towards attaining individual and collective goals; allocates and utilizes limited resources for the satisfaction of basic needs of the citizenry. Akume (2012) asserted that a good leader mobilizes resources for the attainment of consensus goals of the collective interest; makes decisions for the attainment of societal goals; extracts, produces and distributes channels towards promoting the good life for all in the polity; disciplines and subjects individuals positively to the orderly demand and sacrifice necessary to attain set goals. Based on the importance of leadership in the society, teachers provide leadership in schools to achieve educational goals.
A teacher, according to Unachukwu (1990), is a person who attempts to help someone acquire or change some knowledge, skills, attitude, idea or appreciation. Obanewa (1994) stated that a teacher is someone who has undergone the necessary and recommended training in teacher preparatory programmes and is charged with the full responsibility of managing the classroom in such a way as to enhance the learning behaviour of the students. Obanewa further stated that some human qualities that may enable a teacher achieve most educational goals in the school include the ability to master the subject; exercise self-control; take right decisions and demonstrate a good instructional leadership all the time.
Instructional leadership according to Heywood (2006) is actions taken by an individual to promote students’ learning. That is, the leadership that encourages educational achievement by making instructional quality the top priority of the school. In the view of Zepeda (2008), instructional leadership is the dynamic delivery of the curriculum in the classroom through strategies based on different leadership models to ensure optimum delivery. Zepeda further explained that instructional leadership focuses on teaching and learning in order to realize the objectives. In the context of this study, instructional leadership means adoption of different leadership models in the dynamic delivery of the curriculum to ensure the realizations of its objectives. The forms of leadership demonstrated by teachers in schools, in this study, are referred to teachers’ instructional leadership model. When instructional leadership model is effectively utilized, all stakeholders can move forward in the knowledge that whatever the current economic, political or social climate might be, optimum teaching and learning are being achieved for their students.
Teachers adopt different models of leadership in schools based on their varying background and experiences. Lewin, Lippit and White (1939) stated that the major models of leadership include authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. According to the authors, a teacher with authoritative instructional leadership demonstrates respect for every student in the classroom while sharing responsibilities to every student. Decision-making and communication are based on consultation, deliberation and participation among the students. This permits self-expression, creativity and teacher-students interaction. Authoritarian model of instructional leadership according to the authors emphasizes achievement of the objective at the expense of human consideration. That is, the teacher takes decisions exclusively believing that students are weak, unwilling to study, incapable of self-determination and have limited reasoning. Therefore, they must be directed, pushed and forced to do work. With reference to permissive model of instructional leadership, the teacher allows complete freedom to the students and they behave as they wish in the class due to the teacher’s tolerance. Students are usually left to study on their own instruction or supervision. These three models of instructional leadership are effective depending on the situation in the classroom. Though, each has its own strengths and weaknesses. For instance, an interaction between the researcher and 52 secondary school teachers in two external examination (WAEC) marking centers in the area of the study revealed that 43% of teachers are authoritarian, 19% of teachers are authoritative while 38% of teachers are permissive in their instructional leadership. For this study, how emotional intelligence and locus of control predict teachers’ instructional leadership would be determined.
Emotional intelligence is defined by Mayer (2002) as one’s ability to understand and regulate one’s own emotional responses as well as adapt and respond to others. Salovey (2002) viewed emotional intelligence more specifically as the ability to perceive emotions, access knowledge, reflectively regulate emotions and promote emotional and intellectual growth. Emotional intelligence could be concerned with understanding oneself and others, relating to people, adapting to and coping with immediate surroundings and to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands. George (2000) observed that an emotionally intelligent person has the ability to understand the emotions of others and manage their moods in the social setting. This is in line with the statement of Robbins (2009) that when teachers understand the emotional state of their students, they may be more likely to convey a sense of efficacy, competence, optimism and enjoyment. Robbins further asserted that teachers who have high emotional intelligence are usually successful in the classroom. Teachers who have low emotional intelligence hardly understand students’ emotions and find it difficult to facilitate their learning and achievement. This implies that the level of emotional intelligence of a teacher may predict how he/she can understand the students and their environment and by implication the teachers’ instructional leadership. According to Hallinger (2000), emotional intelligence enhances instructional leadership by providing valuable information about practices needed to support teaching and learning. It enhances instructional leadership by creating a climate of support that thrives on interpersonal relationship. The author further stated that the ability of the teachers to identify and understand the emotions of students in the classroom, manage their own and others’ positive and negative emotions, control emotions in the classroom effectively, utilize emotional information during problem solving and express their feelings to others are important conditions that determine the forms of instructional leadership provided. Apart from emotional intelligence, another factor that may predict teachers’ instructional leadership in secondary schools is locus of control.
Locus of control according to Lefcourt (2000) is referred to as the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events and causes of their actions. This belief in turn guides what kinds of attitude, behaviour or model of leadership people adopt. The two loci as established by Lefcourt are the internal and external loci. The Lefcourt stated that individuals who make choice primarily on their own are considered as having internal locus of control. Such individuals see themselves as the main cause of what happens to them and the success of the people they are leading. According to Perkins (2008), teachers with internal locus of control are considered less susceptible to social influence; better information seekers; more achievement oriented and better adjusted psychologically. Bush (2005) opined that individuals who exhibit high degrees of internal locus of control tend to be more assertive, confident and authoritative; and actively seek chances for achievement. Bush further maintained that this class of people have higher levels of job satisfaction; are more motivated in their work and encourage higher levels of participation in classroom work. This implies that teachers who have internal locus of control are likely to be committed to their school work and demonstrate authoritative leadership for the achievement of educational goals. It also means that the more the internal locus of control of a teacher, the more the teacher engages the students in decision-making, innovation, undertaking projects, leading rather than imitating the moves of competitors (Toulouse, 2002). According to Vanger (2006), some people have predisposition to believe that they have more control over their environment than others. A teacher with an internal locus of control could view work-related challenges as opportunities to learn or advance.
External locus of control is a belief of an individual who make choices based on external forces or influence. Teachers who make decisions based on what others desire is said to have external locus of control. Such teachers believe that the achievements of students in examinations and future depend on luck, chance or the assistance of others. Sanders (2003) observed that people with external locus of control may display authoritarian or permissive model of leadership due to lack of competence and dedication to duties. An individual with an external locus of control may find little meaning in the learning opportunity since it is believed that effort makes little or no impact on the learning situation. Under such teachers, students may not be committed to vigorously pursue learning and the consequence may be poor achievement.
Gender is another factor which has been suggested to influence instructional leadership model. It is the role ascribed to males and females by the society. Richardson (2001) argued that one’s psychology, which may include one’s model of leadership, could be influenced by one’s gender. Ezeh (2013) stated that men and women flourish educationally when given the same supportive environment. According to Ezeh, it means that gender does not predict instructional leadership models. Therefore, one may wonder the extent teachers’ instructional leadership models could be predicted by the emotional intelligence and locus of control of teachers in Enugu State.
Statement of the Problem
The major role of a teacher in any school is to ensure effective teaching and learning. To this end, teachers adopt different models of leadership in secondary schools to direct and motivate students towards learning for the achievement of educational objectives. In the area of the study, it is worrisome that the achievements of students in external examinations are declining steadily. This situation has become a source of concern to teachers, parents, curriculum experts, evaluators and researchers. It is believed that if the achievements of students continue to decline unabated, it may affect both the economic and technological growth of Nigeria. However, many factors are believed to be responsible for the poor achievements of the students in external examinations. Such factors range from the school administration, environment to teacher factor such as leadership models, emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender.
In the area of the study, the researcher observed that teachers’ instructional leadership models contribute a lot to the academic achievements of students. This is because students in the class usually avoid the class and lessons of an authoritarian while they attend to the classes of a permissive instructional teacher to play away their time. Besides, studies on educational functions have shown that having qualified teachers in a school do not automatically translate to students’ scores without good instructional leadership model. This is because, the success of students in a class to an extent depends on motivations and instructional leadership models of the teachers. Leithwood (2004) found that schools making significant progress are often lead by teachers who adopt authoritative instructional leadership model. Mean while, an interaction between the researcher and 52 secondary school teachers in two external examination (WAEC) marking centers in the area of the study revealed that 43% of teachers are authoritarian, 19% of teachers are authoritative while 38% of teachers are permissive in their instructional leadership models. On further enquiry on what could be responsible for adopting different instructional leadership models by teachers, they suggested that factors such as stress, job satisfaction, emotional intelligence and locus of control determine ones instructional leadership model in a class. Educational researchers and psychologists have carried out research to ascertain the possible influence of training needs, of teachers, teachers’ reinforcement, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention on the instructional leadership model of teachers in secondary schools in an attempt to encourage authoritative leadership model yet the variation in teachers’ instructional leadership model and the poor results of students persists. This gap in instructional leadership model makes it necessary to determine the extent emotional intelligence and locus of control predict teachers’ instructional leadership model with regards to improving the achievement of students in external examinations. Therefore, the problem of the study put in a question form is: To what extent do teachers’ emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender predict teachers’ instructional leadership?
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study was to determine the extent emotional intelligence and locus of control predict teachers’ instructional leadership in secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:
1 determine the level of emotional intelligence of the teachers.
2 ascertain the nature of locus of control of teachers.
3 determine the nature of instructional leadership model of teachers in school.
4 determine the extent emotional intelligence predicts teachers’ instructional leadership model.
5 ascertain the extent locus of control predicts teachers’ instructional leadership model.
6 determine the extent gender of teachers predict teachers’ instructional leadership model.
7 determine the extent emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender predicts teachers’ instructional leadership model.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study derives both from the theoretical and practical basis of emotional intelligence and locus of control as predictors of teachers’ instructional leadership. Theoretically, this study is significant to many individuals. This is because individuals that are intelligent have the capacity to reason abstractly and display emotions that send signals during relationship. Furthermore, individuals who have internal locus of control work harder than those with external locus of control since they believe that achievement comes through hard working. Practically, this study is significant to teachers, students, educational administrators and researchers, when published.
The study will provide information to teachers on emotional intelligence and locus of control as they predict their instructional leadership model. The information will be utilized by teachers in teaching in the classroom irrespective of their emotional intelligence and locus of control.
The students will indirectly benefit from the findings of the study through the teachers. The students would understand the possible causes of the leadership models adopted by different teachers in their schools. The findings of the study would enable the students to accommodate various leadership models and focus on their studies for higher academic achievements.
The educational administrators through the findings of the study could be motivated to organize conferences, seminars and workshops for teachers on instructional leadership that could be useful to teachers. These workshops and seminars could help to enhance teachers’ instructional leadership model in the classroom for better achievement of students in both internal and external examinations.
To the researchers, the findings of this study would provide information upon which future research in the areas of emotional intelligence, locus of control and instructional leadership could be based. It could then act as a guide to researchers on how to carry out studies on factors that influence instructional leadership models of teachers.
Scope of the Study
The study was carried out in Enugu State of Nigeria. Enugu State has six Education Zones namely: Nsukka, Agbani, Awgu, Enugu, Obollo-Afor and Udi. Only the teachers in public junior secondary schools in these zones were involved in the study. Junior secondary school teachers were chosen because they formed the educational foundation of secondary school students and their emotional intelligence, locus of control and instructional leadership model determines the academic achievement of the students in the subsequent external examinations in their life. Also, the rationale for choosing public secondary schools only was based on the fact that the public junior secondary school teachers are more homogeneous in certification than the private secondary school teachers.
Specifically, the study attempted to determine emotional intelligence and locus of control as predictors of teachers’ instructional leadership model. The study explored three models of leadership which include authoritative, authoritarian and permissive leadership models. It also examined the influence of gender on teachers’ emotional intelligence, locus of control and instructional leadership model in schools.
The following research questions guided the study:
1. what is the level of teachers’ emotional intelligence?
2. what is the nature of teachers’ locus of control?
3. what is the nature of teachers’ instructional leadership model?
4. to what extent does emotional intelligence predict teachers’ instructional leadership model?
5. what is the extent locus of control predicts teachers’ instructional leadership model?
6. to what extent does gender of teachers influence teachers’ instructional leadership model?
7. what is the extent to which emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender predict teachers’ instructional leadership model?
The following null hypotheses (Ho) were tested at 0.05 levels of significance:
HO1: emotional intelligence does not significantly predict teachers’ instructional leadership model.
HO2: locus of control does not significantly predict teachers’ instructional leadership model.
HO3: gender of teachers does not significantly predict teachers’ instructional leadership model.
HO4: emotional intelligence, locus of control and gender of teachers do not significantly predict teachers’ instructional leadership model..