THE ATTITUDE OF MUSLIMS YOUTH IN THE ECONOMIC SELF RELIANCE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the name of Allah most beneficial most merciful may the blessing and peace of Allah be upon our master Muhammad, his relations6 his companions and those who follow to the day of judgment.
The informal section in Nigeria refer to economic activities in all sector of the economy that are operated outside the purview of government resolution. This sector may be invisible, irregular parallel. Nonstructural backward, underground subterranean, unobserved or residual according to one scholar says informal economic activities a large which ranges from small scale large self-employment activities most of them are traditional occupation and method of production, others include such financial and economic endeavors of subsistence nature as: retail trade ,transports, restaurant repair services, financial intermediation and household or other personal activities, Adamu (1996) activities of informal sector in Nigeria are difficult to measure. They are highly dynamic and contribute substantially to general growth of economy and personal house hold income.
Therefore Islam is a religion and it` scomplete way of life, its teaching comprises every aspects of human endeavors being a spiritual or mundane, thus Islam is not only concerned with Religious rituals but also deal with all aspects of human life, be a social political economical or religious.
Economically Islam encouraged self-reliance and exhort dependency. Hence Islam encourages its adherents to move everywhere on earth seeking for their daily break, but in a decent and legal manner approach by shari’ah.
In the Glorious Qur’an for example Allah (SWT) permitted business transaction and prohibited usury. These are other rules and regulation governing to Business and commercial activities, include debt which are clearly spelt out in the Glorious Qur’an. In addition the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon Him) as messenger of Allah (SWT) was not only a messenger whose duty was to deliver the message but also a teacher and interpreter of the message i.e Glorious Qur’an because due to the limitation of human reasoning and intellect man cannot comprehend and understand the message direct from Allah (SWT). Thus, the need to explain more of the message so that the man
can put it into practice.According to the spirit and essence of Islam.
The interpretation (explanation) of the Glorious Qur’an by the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was done verbally or through His action. In the history of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) he was known to be a Business man (merchant) who engaged into commercial transaction even before his prophet hood.
There are various a hadith of the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which enjoined Muslims to self-reliant and exhort them from being dependent or liability to others. Also, during the life time of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and after his death His companions (may Allah be pleased with them) engaged into various commercial activities in order to become self-reliant.
For example, companions such as Uthman bin Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) were popular in Business entrepreneur man at the early period of Islam when Muslims are being persecuted some other companions (may Allah be pleased with them) engaged into farming, weaving, outing firewood, hunting and many other forms of labour to earn a living.
However, this research tries to study the concept of self-reliance in Islam. The means of the attitude of Muslim youth in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local Government of Zamfara state. This is with a view to understanding how Muslims youth in the area of study apply the concept in their daily life. Considering that Gummi local Government was developed since during Jihad of Sheik Uthman bin Fodiyo (May Allah cover him with his mercy), Therefore it`s, not an exaggeration to say that Gummi local government is an area which was established and govern under shade of Islamic Principle.
But due to the globalization scientific and technological development as well as contemporary civilization the town is a cosmopolitan, comprising many people from all aspects of life with different historical culture and religious background.
Despite the fact that the town is dominated by Muslims hence the need to investigate the attitude of Muslim youth toward the economic self-reliance in-order to see whether these youth know or understand the position of Islam on this important aspect or not. Also to create awareness and encouragement to these youth in order to become more productive and avoid redundancy and idleness for their own benefit and the society at large.
In recent times begging has become one of the fundamental problems that rooted deep into our society this could be clearly understood in the way some able bodied men and women gathered at the houses of the rich men and politicians waiting for these wealthy individuals to give them some little penny after they have wasted much of their time waiting, and of course after they have downgraded themselves and destroyed their dignity of human person4. Furthermore some of these people resort to begging in order to add their richness, not because, they are desperately in need of assistance due to the fact that they are lacking what they are begging.
It should be understood that Islam is against begging and only allowed to beg a Muslim when there is necessary to do so, and immediately after the beggar meet his need, it is prohibited for him to beg again.
The worst part of it is that the teaming youth of Gummi especially those regarded as political thug portray themselves as beggars not only going from one house to another but also roaming the various offices of the local government officers where they are begging them.
It was said that one error lead to another the system of begging has changed pattern in recent years, where one could see an able bodied men in their good appearance going from one house to another from one office to another or even in the mosque, market severe or in the road side creating lies to themselves or their families e.g someone will say his wife or children are sick or his wife has given birth to a new born baby and he does not have the means to cater for their medical expenses or what to feed his families. 5
Indeed this situation is very annoying and shameful because the acts of begging as well as economic dependency in this part of the country is largely attributed to Muslimssdue to the fact that you hardly see any person from other religion engaged in this activities.
However despite all these problems here is a way and a solution to it, because Islam totally condemned economic dependence and idleness Islam also encourage self- reliance. Therefore Gummi local government Zamfara state in general and particular is blessed with abundant human and material resources, which is utilized could be sufficient enough to make the people of the area to became economically self-reliant but also benefit to the entire society.
This and many issue are what the researcher will dwell into in order to encourage Muslims youth in the area and awaken them from their slumber. So that they should harness the limited resource available to them for the economic development and progress of the people of the area and Islam in general.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This research work is to evaluate how self-reliance is reducing the problem of unemployment in Gummi local Government Zamfara State. However, this research work is likely going to face number of limitations, this include time and financial constrain the research work is confined a period of some month to one year.
Also the researcher is going on course work.The indeed affect the time required for the research work adversely to alleviate, this problem the researchers decides to use lecture free period and semester break for the study work.
Therefore, the scope of this research will be the centers on the attitude of the Muslims youth in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local government, Zamfara state. Therefore the project is going to cover issue regarding self-reliance and its applications in Islam and consider Muslims youth in Gummi local Government and how they apply this concept.
The limitation of this research is that the study will be restricted in Gummi local Government. Although the research will discuss the issue of self-reliance in Islam yet the only aspect of how it’s being applied in the area will be discussed and not the aspect such as position of Business in Islam and it’s rule and regulation,the issue of usury or other.
SIGNIFICANCE AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
This research work will be of great importance because it may be among other prelude a means of determining the information on the basis in which the necessary correction measure may take. It is serves as sources of secondary data to researcher relating to the topic at hand.
Therefore significance of the study could not be overemphasized due to the fact that it will add to the stock of human knowledge in one of the important aspect of life. i.e self reliance.
The study work will also be benefit because it will discuss the concept of self- reliance in Islam and trace the issue of self-reliance among the early Muslim society.
The research will also help students of learning to understand how Islam places an emphasis on the issue of self-reliance and howMuslim youth respond to this teaching regarding self-reliance.
In addition the research is very significance in guiding Muslim youth on how to become self-reliant from Islamic perspectives. Therefore they shall be able to differentiate between Islamic and eastern concepts of self-reliance and how important it is to the development of mankind and progress of the society at large.
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The issue of unemployment under employment and economic development are closely related. The greater the employment opportunity generated by any economic. The betterit’s performance this is more so in an economy characterizedby labour abundance. Hence, The existence of unemployment rate in an economy becomes a source of concern to policy makers as well as the general literacy.
The researchwork seek to find out how self-reliance is reducing the problem of unemployment particularly in Gummi local government Zamfara state. The fact about this is not generally known and therefore constitute the problem of the study.
In addition this study work will address the issue of the attitude of the Muslims youth in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local Government Zamfara state. Therefore the research tend to answer the following question.
1. What is self-reliance?
2. Did Islam set guidance for solving problems related to the economic Independent or not
3. Are the Muslims youth in Gummi local Government applying the Islamic teaching on self-reliance?
4. Why some people in the area does not participate in any economic activities but resort to begging as a way of earning a living?
5. What did Islam say about begging?
6. What are the problem facing Muslims youth in Gummi local Government which block their chances of becoming self-reliant?
7. How we can solve the problems in order to encourage the youth to became self-reliant?
If these question was answered at the end of this research some thing new as contribution to knowledge will come up.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research work and it`s objectives are:
1. To critically examine self-reliance in Islam and how the concept is applied during the life time of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).
2. To examine the usage of the concept among the early people of Gummi local government and make a comparison with contemporary Muslims youth in the area.
3. To discuss the different ways available for the Muslim youth in Gummi local Government to become self-reliant.
4. To provide basic frame work for the application of self-reliance as provided by Islam for the people of Gummi local Government.
5. To the extent at which Muslims youthstudying in the area are economically self- reliant.
Finally our youth enter into economic activities in order to depend on themselves and even to help the other Muslim in depending themselves.
This article will explain the procedure and techniques adopted in conducting this
This research work employ both primary and secondary sources of data involved the use of questionnaire as instrument of data collection. The primary sources on the hand consist of Journal articles published book, relevant documents.
For any research to succeed there is need to adopt on every good methodology of data collection as I mentioned earlier because it’s the basic conceptual framework on which the research finding and conclusion will be evaluated.
Therefore in carrying this study the researcher will make the use of primary and secondary sources of data which would be collected through libraries and field work.
Hence Abdullahi bin Fodiyo library of Usman Danfodiyo University Sokoto and literary will be visited to get written materials such as textbooks, magazine etc. in addition to this internet sources will be useful in obtaining the materials.
In the field of the research intend to conduct interview with relevant resource persons to be obtained and oral information gathered will be scrutinized before being use.
This research is designed to contain chapters, chapter one deal with the general introduction of the entire work, it contained the background of the study, the statement of the research problem aim and objectives of the research the methodology as well as the structure and literature review.
Chapter two will deal with the historical background of Gummi local Government Zamfara state and coming of Islam to Gummi local Government such as history of Gummi local Government, how Islam came to Gummi local Government, religious belief of the people of Gummi local Government and the occupation of the people of Gummi local Government. Chapter three contained the concept of self-reliance in Islam. The topic treated include: self-reliance in the glorious Qur’an, self-reliance in the period of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). And also self-reliance in the period of sheikh Uthman bin Fodiyo and his followers. In the chapter four the researcher should explain, self-reliance among the contemporary people of Gummi local Government, the attitude of Muslim youth in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local Government in addition to summary of finding, recommendation, conclusion and Bibliography are also contained in the chapter.
This section is dedicated to review various works of other scholars in respect to our subject matter of discussion which is self-reliance. This is necessary in other to recognized their giant efforts and also to appreciate the relevant literature which the researcher has consulted in the course of conducting this research it is no doubt that the issue of self-reliance in Islam is very important and it comprises a very wide range and scope. Therefore different scholars have written extensively on one aspect of self-reliance or the other for example: A.A. Sokoto “Islam and self-reliance” The making and preparation of a useful member of the society the author through discussing the Islamic concept of self-reliance and how Islam encourage its adherents to become an active and useful member in the society through useful economic activities being dependent on other6. Infact A.A. Sokoto work is very relevant to this study work because it will give us the clear idea about Islamic concept of self-reliance and how a Muslim can apply these 0Islamic teachings to achieve the desired goals or purpose of his creation on earth the author also discussed some economic activities which every Muslims should engage into,in order to become useful member in the society. Yet A.A. Sokoto’s work is different with this study because the author was discussed about Islam and self-reliance generally while this research is centered on the issue of the attitude of Muslims youth in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local Government Zamfara state.
Another important work is A.A. Ashafah “Earning a living in Islam” where the author make special duty on the Kitab al-makasibe of Sheikh Muhammad Bello (Rahmatullahi Alaihi) this work is very relevant to the study in many aspects they have some disparities in the core-subject matter of the research.
In Abdulatif “Islam in focus” The book discussed many aspects of human life from the Islamic perspective. The book further, elucidates on economic life of a Muslim in respect to application of Islam in Muslim daily life. He also encouraged self- supporting and earning one’s living though decent labour.
This work is very important and relevant because it attempted to educate us on the Islamic ways of earning a living as well as some aspect of economy.yet the different with this study work is that, this study it will emphasize on the attitude of the Muslims youths in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local Government.
In M.A. Mika’ilu’s “ethnic and Business performance” An Islamic Analysis, The author discussed the Islamic analysis on the role of ethnic in affirming business performance therefore M.A. Mikailu also tries to bring to the light of the principles dealing in Islam and further made a comparative analysis between the conventional and Islamic approaches in matter of Business transaction.
This book is important because it tends to inform us how Business transaction should be in Islam and how a Business person should conduct himself for the prosperity of his Business and blessing from Allah (S.W.T), ofcourse the work differ with this study in some aspect as it fail to touch on the issues of the attitude of the Muslim youth in the economic self-reliance in Gummi local Government Zamfara state.
Yusuf Al-Qaradawis “the lawful and prohibited in Islam” discussed the lawful and unlawful issues in Islamic Business transaction, the author stated that Islam encourages economic dependent and earning a living yet Islam encourages one to earn a living only in a decent manner as such certain activities in the course of Business were
prohibited e.g. Riba (usury) cheating, misappropriate and false pretense among other things, This book is very important because is show us the need for a Muslim to wake up and look for sources of the livelihood in a decent and approved manner and avoid certain unlawful act. In the name of earning a living this isat least one enjoined to earn his living (but in a decent manner) what of those who goes about begging or employing other tactics in order to survive.
In additionally I will also review some project researches which was done by some students of this greatUniversity of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and other Universities in different parts of the country such as m. Sanis “The concept of self- reliance in Islam and attitude of contemporary youth in Sokoto metropolis” a submitted project to the department of Islamic Study Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto.
Therefore this project research has relevance to my study work in different aspects also the researcher i.e the author make full effort on his research work he categorized many issues in it, like concept of Islamic, self-reliance and various reasons from the Islamic perspective i.e Qur’an, Sunnah and Consensus of the companion i.e sahaba (may Allah be pleased with them) in our early scholars and contemporary Muslims.
N. Ango’s concept of self-reliance in Islam an attitude of contemporary youth case study in Mafara local Government Zamafara state. The author or the researcher discussed many relevant issues concern my research work because he explained many things which supports to explained about self-reliance and it’s implication to the Muslims youths.
N. Musa’s contribution of sheikh Musa shekare to spread of Islam in Gummi local Government, Zamfara state. The researcher made double efforts in his researching and brought about many important issues in his research which will bring benefit to the other students who want make their research work. He discussed about the historical of Gummi local Government. How Islam came to Gummi local Government before they embrace Islam and their occupation, Therefore the work is very relevant to my study.
I pray to Allah (SWT) to assist us in our daily activities and make us to die as Muslims and this research work become beneficial to me and other student who would came after, or any other person who wants to make research on self-reliance in Islam, and also I pray to Allah (SWT) to guide my supervisor who is guiding me in this research work may Allah reward him abundantly.
H. Abdullatif, ISLAM IN Focus, Egypt, EC. Mansura, 2002.
M. Sani, Concept of self-reliance in Islam and attitude of contemporary youth B.A. Submitted project to the Islamic department Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
M.A. Salihu, Ethnic and Business performance, on Islam, Zaria, A.B.U Press limited, 1989.
N.T. Adamu “An evaluation of self-employment in Jega town B.S.C Project submitted to the department of economic Usmau Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
Y. al-Qaradawi, The lawful and prohibition in Islam, USA, American Trust Publication, 1960..