INFLUENCE OF TEACHER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN ILORIN WEST LGA, KWARA-STATE).
This study investigated the influence of teacher training and development programmes on students’ academic performance in Ilorin West LGA of Kwara State.
Simple random sampling method was used to select twenty secondary schools used as sample for the study. Also, 200 teachers were randomly selected as respondents to the questionnaire used for the study. Three null hypotheses were generated and tested using the Pearson product moment correlation statistic to analyse the data.
The results indicated that there well trained teachers significantly influence students’ academic performance.
Based on the findings, it was recommended amongst others that teachers should be trained and re-trained from time to time. They should also be given the opportunity to attend seminars, workshops and conferences so as to improve the academic standard of their students.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLES X
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 8
General Questions 10
Research Questions 10
Research Hypothesis 11
Significance of the Study 12
Operational Definition of Terms 14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW THE RELATED LITERATURE
Importance of training and development in the
provision of qualitative education 17
Staff Development Programmes in schools 22
Types of Staff development programmes 25
Influence of teacher training and development
programmes on students’ academic performance 31
Influence of training and development programmes
of teachers on students’ performance in mathematics 35
Benefits of teacher training and staff development 39
Summary of the Literature Reviewed 42
CHAPTER THREE: - RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design 45
Sample and Sampling Technique 47
Research Instrument 47
Validity of the Instrument 48
Reliability of the Instrument 49
Administration of the Instrument 50
Data Analysis 50
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Demographic distribution of respondents 53
Testing of Hypothesis Formulated 59
Discussion of Finding 64
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Implications of the Study 68
Limitations of the Study 71
Suggestion for Further Studies 71
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Distribution of Respondents on the basis
of Gender 53
Table 2: Academic Qualification of Respondents 53
Table 3: Mean and standard deviation showing the influence of teachers’ attendance of workshops and seminars on student’s academic performance in mathematics (N=100). 54
Table 4: Mean and standard deviation showing the extent to which teachers acquisition of higher certificate influence students academic performance in mathematics (N=100). 56
Table 5:Percentage scores of responses on impact of teachers’ years of training on students academic performance in mathematics. 60
Table 6: Summary of PPMC (r) on the impact of teachers attendance in seminars and workshops on students academic performance in mathematics. 60
Table 7: Summary of PPMC (r) on the impact of
teacher qualification on mathematics
students’ performance 62
Table 8: Summary PPMC (r) on impact of teachers’
year of training on students’ academic
performance in mathematics. 63
Background to the Study
Education is a service which deals directly and indirectly with learners, teachers, people and the public. It prepares individuals for skilful performance or role playing in the society. Schools have a mandate to educate children to acquire relevant skills and knowledge for application in solving problems. To do this successfully, schools need well qualified teachers.
Since no employee can remain qualified with continuous change in societal values and expectations, some form of on-going education and training becomes a necessity. The different methods used in developing teachers in schools include induction, conferences, workshops and seminars. Others are staff meetings, visits and demonstrations, professional training and higher studies as well as exhibitions.
According to Alabi (2005) training and developingprogrammes need to be organised for teachers to improve theirinstructional methodology to acquire skills relating to their teachingand skills required for improved performance at work. All these arenecessary to enhance their students’ performance.
Hassan (2004) also argued that it is literally impossible to learn a job or enter a profession and remain in it for long with his or her skills basically unchanged. This is more so in a complex and constantly changing organisation likea school that must adapt to changing societal demands and instructional methodology. Thus, no matter how excellent the pre-service preparation and how well qualified teachers are at the time of employment, efforts should be made to develop them personally and professionally on a regular and continuous basis. The schools need well qualified teachers to provide quality learning experiences for students in line with the provision of the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) that no education standard can rise above the quality of its teachers. It is therefore imperative to train and develop the teachers that directlyimpart knowledge to students, the school leaders that supervise, guide and support the teachers and other support staff that make the work of the teachers and the school heads easier. It is only then that appropriate and adequate knowledge can be imparted to thestudents resulting ultimately in successful achievement of the goals of education.
Raji (2008) described teachers as preservers of established-tradition. The teacher examines the cultural values of his society, its dynamics and the changing values occurring within the system. Hepropagates the values, ethics and norms that characterize the society in order to ensure that the children develop in line with the aspirations of the society. Where changes have been instituted, he transmits the values and techniques that facilitate the generation of change.
The teacher is an innovator and agent of change. He approves the curriculum to meet the needs of the child and the society. He engages in continuous research that helps him to meet with the new knowledge available and to keep up with the trend of social and technological change. He gets involved in keeping the profession up to date and ensures adequate course maintenance.
Jamie (2003) pointed out that quality learning depends onthe recruitment, retention and development of professional teachers needed to improve the level of performance towards the provisionof qualitative education. This means that the key to high standard of education is the quality of teachers who constitute the human input which is indispensable in determining students’ academic performance.
For many years, educators and researchers have carrier out studies on teachers’ job performance with little emphasis on training and development of teachers as panacea to students’ academic performance. Factors such as teachers’ qualification, class size and the motivation given to the teachers in terms of remuneration also have significant impact on teachers’ job performance and students’ academic performance.Nevertheless, teachers’ training and development also contribute significantly to students’ academic performance.
This is because for teachers to perform his roles effectively, he must employ techniques that meet both short and long term objectives. To achieve this, teachers need to be trained, re-trained and constantly developed to meet the dynamism of the society.
In view of the foregoing therefore, this study is carried out toexamine the influence of teachers’ training and developmentprogrammes on the academic performance of students in mathematics in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State.
Statement of the Problem
The fact that education is the only effective tool which can solve socio-economic, political and technological problems of both developed and developing countries has made various governments to place emphasis on the quality of teachers, since education is the key to national development and only teachers hold the key that can turn it for national development, the need then arise to train and develop the teachers to the aspirations of the society. It is therefore expected that only the intellectually promising and qualified persons are engaged in the teaching industry.
According to Wycoff (2006) teachers’ expertise as measured by performance, years of experience and completion of an advanced degree accounted for roughly 40% of the variance in students’ academic performance. However, little attention has been placed on the influence of teacher training and developmentprogrammes on students’ academic performance in mathematics. A careful assessment of secondary schools in Nigeria today clearly revealed that students’ academic performance in external examinations has been low. Some people attributed the students’ academic performance to poor teachers’ remuneration, inadequate facilities in schools and students’ indiscipline. Other schools of thought put the blame at the door step of the government for not providing the teachers with the opportunity to engage in training anddevelopment programmes after they have been recruited.
The problem of this study therefore is to confirm or refute the authenticity of whether teacher training and development programmes influence students’ academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State or not.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence ofteacher training and development programmes on students’academic performance in Ilorin West Local Government of Kwara state.
Specifically, the study is conducted to achieve the following goal:
1. To examine teachers’ qualification as pre-requisite to students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
2. To determine the ‘extent to which teachers’ training and development programmes influence students’ academicperformance in secondary schools.
3. To inquire into whether the body responsible for recruitment, promotion and transfer of teachers use teachers’ participation in training and development programmes as a condition for their promotion in Ilorin West Local Government of Kwara state.
4. To find out other factors that are responsible for students’ academic performance in mathematics in junior secondary schools within Ilorin West Local Government of Kwara state, apart from teachers’ training and development programmes.
5. To suggest methods that can be used to enhance students’ academic performance in mathematics in juniorsecondary schools.
1. Hasteachers’ qualification and years of training have any influence on students’ academic performance in mathematics in juniorsecondaryschools?
2. Hasteachers’ teaching experience have any influence on students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
3. Do mathematics teachers in secondary schools attend conferences, workshops and seminars after recruitment?
4. What influence does teacher training and staff development programmes have on students’ academic performance inmathematics in juniorsecondary schools?
1. Hasregular attendance of workshops and seminars byteachers have any significant impact on students’ academicperformance in mathematics in juniorsecondary schools?
2. Has acquisition of higher certificate by teachers have any significant impact on students’ academic performance inmathematics in juniorsecondary schools?
3. Do teachers’ years of training any significant impact onstudents’ academic performance in mathematics in juniorsecondary schools?
The following hypotheses are generated for the study:
HOl: Regular attendance of workshops and seminars by teachers do not have any significant impact on students’ academic performance in mathematics in juniorsecondary schools?
HO2: Acquisition of higher certificates by mathematics teachers does hot have any significant impact on students’ academic performance in secondary schools?
H03: Teachers’ years of training do not have any significant impacton student’s academic performance in mathematics in juniorsecondary schools?
Significance of the Study
The significance of this study to teacher, government and educational planners cannot be over emphasised. This is because, the quality of education of a particular country depends on the quality of its teachers. To this end, this study is significant in the following ways:
- The findings and recommendations of this study will assist the government and policy makers on the need to organise seminars, workshops and other in-service courses which will improve their instructional methodology and ultimately enhance the students’ academic performance.
- The findings of this study would benefit the teachers because it would create in them, the need to acquire higher qualifications, attend workshops and seminars and other in-service courses capable of improving their job performance and the academic performance of their students.
- The findings will also be beneficial to educational planners and policy makers because they will be able to identify those factorsthat can enhance students’ academic performance in secondaryschools.
- The study will also serve as a useful resource to students of education and those already in the field to further enrich theirknowledge.
Operational Definition of Terms
For the purpose of thisstudy, the following terms and variables areoperationally defined.
Teaching: This refers to the expression of intent by secondary school teachers with the aim of bringing about a desirable behaviour of learners in secondary schools within Ilorin West Local Government Area.
Teacher: This refers to a person who handles various issues which arise in connection with learning in secondary schools within Ilorin West Local Government Area.
Influence: This refers to factors underlying responsibility of a number of behavioural manifestations. In this study, influence refersto the factors of teacher training and development programmes that make students to have low or high academic performance in secondary schools within Ilorin West Local Government Area.
Students’ academic performance: This refers to the result of students at the end of examinations in secondary schools within Ilorin West Local Government Area.
Training and Development Programmes: These refer to activities engaged in by teachers to enhance their knowledge, skills and attitudes in order to teach students more effectively in secondary schools within Ilorin West Local Government Area..