The main aim of this study is to find out role of citizenship education towards controlling human trafficking in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area. four specific purposes and four corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study. The literatures related to this study were reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical and empirical studies. The research design adopted for this study was survey design. The population of the study comprised the secondary school students in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area with the population of 15,675 students in 15 secondary schools in the area.  Simple random sampling technique was used to select 385 secondary schools students were selected from the selected five schools for the sampling. The instrument used to obtain information was structured questionnaire. The instrument used was validated by three lecturers in the school of Education Godfrey Okoye University Enugu. The test-retest reliability procedure of 0.75 reliability index was adopted. The data collected were analyzed using mean. Therefore, the findings of the study showed that role of citizenship education which are Establishing a community education program for the prevention of child abuse and trafficking, Develop awareness raising and educational courses about Hiv and Aids and human trafficking, Train community leaders regarding the manipulation of religious practice in human trafficking. Based on these, the study recommended that Special adult education program may be initiated to cover those parents who remain illiterate and ignorant. There is a need to train teachers in modern methodologies of teaching. Special emphasis may be given to for treating the children in a civilized and nice way. 


Title Page i  

Approval Page ii

Certification iii



Table of Contents vi



Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 5

Purpose of the Study 6

Significance of the Study 6

Scope of the Study 7

Research Questions 7


Conceptual Framework 8

Theoretical Framework- 14

Empirical Studies  20

Summary of the Literature Reviewed 23


Research Design    25

Area of Study 25

Population of the Study 26

Sample and Sampling Techniques 26

Instrument for Data Collection 27

Validation of the Instruments 27

Reliability of the Instrument 27

Method of Data Collection28

Method of Data Analysis 28



Discussion of Findings 34

Summary of the Study 47

Conclusion 35

Recommendations 36

References 38

Appendix (questionnaire)                                              41



  Citizenship Education according to Obiadi (2018) is the type of education which teaches what it entails to be a citizen of a community, his responsibilities in the society, his limitations and the fundamental rights he is supposed to enjoy as enshrined in the Constitution. It is about enabling people to make their own decisions and to take responsibility for their own lives and their communities and also teaches why it is important for one to be patriotic to the country and love his countrymen so that unity, progress and stability will be realized. 

Citizenship education helps learners to develop self-confidence and successfully deal with significant life changes and challenges such as bullying and discrimination; gives them a voice in the life of their schools, in their communities and in society at large; enables them to make positive contributions by developing the expertise and experience needed to claim their rights and understand their responsibilities; helps to produce motivated and responsible learners, who relate positively to each other, to staff and to the surrounding community; helps to create an active and responsible citizenry, willing to participate in the life of the nation and the wider world and play its part in the democratic process; and among others, prepares them for the challenges and opportunities of adult and working life Okonkwo (2011).

  Education comes from the latin world “Educare” which means to “draw out”. Education is a process which is viewed as an instrument for transmitting cultural heritage from elders to young ones. In this process, one learns a trade or skill. Education can also be considered as a tool to be used for the interrogation of individuals into the society to achieve self realization, develop consciousness, promote unity and strive for social economic, scientific, cultural and technological process. With these meaning of education, it is a sure tool in curbing human trafficking and also to create awareness in every human trafficking and there is dignity in realizing your dream and being educated will help you to attain any status in life. Thus, the result of this study will help to solve the problems arising from human trafficking.

Human trafficking involves force or coercion, as well as transport, of people for the purposes of labor and various forms of exploitation. Yet, this issue does not get the public attention necessary to combat the problem from local to global levels despite the many individuals and organizations working to address human trafficking, and despite the growth in the field of human trafficking research (Laczko, 2015). Roth (2014) illustrated the importance of the media in bringing attention to this social issue. In Thailand, a variety of NGOs operate with a variety of purposes including, but not limited to education and rehabilitation of rescued victims of trafficking as well as work to prevent exploitation of at-risk populations (Arnold & Bertone, 2007; Asia Watch, 1993; Beyrer & Stachowiak, 2003; Delaney, 2006). Human trafficking, as a field of research, is in its early stages, and connections to other disciplines have only begun to be established in the literature (Laczko, 2005). However, attention to the subject has rapidly grown in recent years garnering an increase in research, policy and practice.

Estimates of the size and scope of the issue are unreliable, in part due to the hidden nature of human trafficking. Human trafficking has numerous dimensions, including historical, political, economic, and social aspects that need to be explored in depth in order to more fully understand this complex topic. 

Human trafficking is an ugly fact of our society that is prevalent even today. Human trafficking is a world-wide problematic issue. Over the years, it has metamorphose into frig teeming growth rate, having reached its peak and without showing sign of reduction in parts of Africa, Eastern, Europe, the Caribbean’s and Latin American countries. It is crucial to note that the increase on the cases of human trafficking in Nigeria is due to the undaunted efforts of the operators and profiteers of the business who are quick to cite unprecedented poverty and the near absence of the basic necessities of life as their driving force. 

       Human trafficking has brought poor reputation in the country. Our main economic problem is human trafficking, since we began on the path of nationhood or society. The main obstacle for striding bodily on this path has been the human trafficking problem because of unemployment. As a result of this, there has been for the past few years’ steady drift away of young men into other countries. This has the chain result of our society being left under populated or underdeveloped. 

       Secondly, Nigeria has been bedeviled by myriad of problem most of the problems can be attributed to the pervasiveness of some of the ills that hamper the attainment of the development of the society. As a result of ills that currently hampers the development of the country; human trafficking has become widespread and now occupies a preeminent position among the ills that pervade the Nigerian society. While it may appear that the problem seem endemic in Imo State, there are indications that no parts of the country is immune from this social malaise that has ravaged many communities. The International Labour Organization (ILO) recently estimated that over 12 million Nigerian children are engaged in human labour James (2010). The survey also estimated that over 10, 000 Nigerian are engaged in prostitution in Italy which constitutes in the Italian sex market. Most of these women and girls are initially trafficked victims many people especially women and children are lured with the promise of good jobs and salaries and then sold into prostitution or bonded labour. Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery where many children and women are forcefully or fraudulently recruited, transported and harbored for sexual or labour exploitation. The victims of human trafficking are usually made to provide sex under threat and without consent. However, they are also used as laborers to work in field and fisheries, sweep shops or as domestic helps.

 Thirdly, human  trafficking is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world with the total annual revenue for trafficking in persons, not less than two hundred and fifty thousand persons, mostly female (i.e. 60% persons ranging from 12 years-18 years, while 40% persons above 18 years are trafficked across the Nigerian borders yearly Ifeanyi (2011). Based on these, the study aimed to find out the role of citizenship education towards controlling human trafficking in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area.

Statement of the Problems  

This study as a worldwide problem, frightens the growth rate of our economy, reducing lives of people in the world it has also brought poor reputation to the state. Because of unemployment human trafficking has increased particularly in Nigeria, they have gone in search for money which has led the state to be underdeveloped. The research is designed to view the immediate causes and effect of human trafficking in Nigeria and the role of citizenship education in controlling human trafficking. Because people had fail to recognize the effect it would bring to the state. The researcher hope that this project work would assist the society both at home and in school to reduce human trafficking. 

 Purpose of the Study 

The main purpose of the study is to find out the role of citizenship education towards controlling human trafficking in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area. Specifically, the study aimed to:  

1. determine the role of citizenship education towards controlling human trafficking in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area.

2. determine the effects of human trafficking among the youth.  

3. determine the causes of human trafficking on the teenagers.

4. ascertain the possible difficulties that the society encounters in human trafficking.    

Significance of the Study

The following will benefit from this work: ministry of education, curriculum planner, curriculum executives, student etc.

Ministry of education: This study will be of great importance, as it will provide necessary information on the causes, effects and remedies to human

trafficking in Nigeria. It will also provide further research in combating trafficking in Nigeria. The study will also be useful for further purposes and for further researches into human trafficking within and outside the country.

Curriculum planner: The finding of these studies will serve as a base for curriculum planners to include course studies in secondary and higher institution curriculum so that undergraduates will learn the dangers of human trafficking. 

Curriculum executives: they will see the need to protect women and children against human trafficking and also develop a holistic blueprint in stamping it out from Nigeria 

Student: through this, the student will know they right from they left on the issues related to human trafficking.

Scope of the Study

The study aimed to cover the role of citizenship education towards controlling human trafficking in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area. Geographically, the study will use schools in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area.

Research Questions 

 The following research questions guided the study

1. What are the roles of citizenship education towards controlling human trafficking in Ehime Mbano Local Government Area?

2. What are the effects of human trafficking among the youth?  

3. What are the causes of human trafficking on the teenagers, adult?  

4. What are the possible difficulties that the society encounters in human trafficking?     



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