1.1Background of the Study

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of waste as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or waste-water. Poor sanitation leads to hazards which can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agent of disease. Waste that can cause health problems including human and animal excreta, solid waste, domestic waste water (sewage or greywater) industrial waste and agricultural wastes. Most African cities are overcrowded, due to urban attraction. Little controlled urban growth lead to poor management of solid and liquid waste produced by cities. This leads to many problem of sanitation. The sanitation in these cities is generally dominated by self purification works. They often repress waste-water that trickles down in living quarter streets emitting strong foul odors. (strauss et al,2000).

The world health organization (WHO) define the term ‘sanitation’ as the provision of facilities and service for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. The world ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste-water disposals. Poor sanitation which has always been associated with Africans has significant negative effects on the health of dwellers living on the environment. Lack of adequate sanitation in school as a major threat to student’s health. Many schools, particularly rural school had no latrine at all and of those with latrine most did not have separate latrines for male and female students. Lack of toilet especially separate toilet for girls was identified as the worst school experience for girls. This illustrate that the issue of poor sanitation is one of the special conditions which prevent female student from fuller participation and achievement in schools and to an extent force them out of school.

Following the recent implementation of the policy for universal primary education, the ratio of students to toilet facilities has reduced, which also discourage female students not attending class. Morbidity figures available according to update show that diarrhea, worm infection, eye and skin disease accounted for 25.5% of all outpatient visit to health centre, while malaria (another diseases related to poor sanitation) accounted for further 35.5% (ie a total of 59% of all outpatient visit are accounted for by poor sanitation). The level of nutritional stunting in the country is still among the worst rates of nutritional stunting in African and is partly attributed to the high incidence of diarrhea, due to poor sanitation.

The rate of poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government area of Edo State has increase in recent time due to some factors hindering adequate sanitation service within the school location. In most secondary schools in Egor local government area, poor sanitation gives a lot of infection the opportunity to spread; plarty of waste and excrete for the flies to breed on, and unsafe water to drink, wash with or swim in. among human parasite disease ranks second behind malaria in term of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical areas. 

1.2Statement of the problem

Poor sanitation condition in secondary school in Egor local government area of Edo State has increase threat to the health of the students. The problem has persisted in spite of the enlightment toward the danger of poor sanitation in school environment.  The extent of the condition in schools is only rarely investigated. This research work therefore is meant to fill the menace of environment pollution. Investment in environment safety is a serious issue, which needs immediate attention in order to reduce the spread of diseases among students in schools. It is therefore proper and appropriate to ensure that all sanitatary facilities in the school meant for sanitation should be put to use to reduce poor sanitary condition in schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.

The centre issues of the study therefore are; what are the factors that cause poor sanitation in schools? Does poor sanitation in schools leads to infection among students? What are the dangers of poor sanitation condition in schools? It is against this background that the study investigates the poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.

1.3Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to investigate poor sanitation condition in secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically the study examined the cause and the effect of poor sanitation in school and it’s dangerous to the health of students.

The study also seeks to find out the factors responsible for poor sanitation and how it affects students’ health thereby reducing their academic performance.

1.4Research questions

The following research questions are raised to guild the study;

Does poor sanitation leads to spread of infection among students in secondary school?

What are the dangers associated with poor sanitation in secondary schools?

What are the factors that result to poor sanitation condition in schools?

Does poor sanitation condition affect the academic performance of students in secondary schools?

Is there any different between poor sanitation condition and student hygienic state of health?

1.5Significance of the study

The study will create public awareness and enlightment campaign to secondary school across Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Also this study will create awareness on the danger of poor sanitation condition. Government, school authorities and stakeholders will be alerted on the existence of poor sanitation conditions in schools and its effect on students health and assist policy makers to enact laws to prevent the high rate of poor sanitation condition and also reduce it to minimum level.

The study would further provide a valid document for researchers and educators as the finding may stimulate further studies in the study of poor sanitation condition in schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. There is no doubt that this study would add to the existing body of knowledge of sanitation.

1.6Scope and delimitation of the study

This study investigated the poor sanitation condition secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State. The study was delimited to only five secondary schools in Egor local Government Area of Edo State.

1.7 Limitation of study

Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in scouring for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (questionnaires).

Time constraint; the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8Definition of terms

The following operational terms are used in the study and how it is applicable to the research;

Condition: the state of something with regard to its appearance, quality, or working order; have a significant influence on or determine (the manner or outcome of something).

Disposal: the action or process of getting rid of something; The action or process of getting rid of something.

Poor: lacking sufficient items or money to live at a standard considered comfortable or normal in a society.

Refuse disposal: system, technique for the collection, treatment, and disposal of the solid wastes of a community. The development and operation of these systems is often called solid-waste management.

Sanitation: conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal.

Health: is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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