Background of the Study

ICT is an acronym that stands forinformation communication technology.  However, apart from explaining an acronym, there is not a universally accepted definition of ICT; this is because the concepts, methods, and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis. It is difficult to keep up with the changes- they happen so fast (Wikipedia ICT_Education) James (2010). A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals, businesses, and organizations use information. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form. Such as personal computers, digital television, email, robots. So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission, or receipt of digital data Henry (2011).

Government as an academic subject of study in secondary school education is synonymous with politics, political, and civic education. Politics as a concept has a strong influence on the well-being of the citizen and the stability of a country. In Nigeria, a pervasive atmosphere of inconsistency ingovernment policiesand the absence of a political culture tends to prevail most of the time. This atmosphere of uncertainty has led to constant friction within the political system and this in essence led to political instability, a situation that does not create room for meaningful development. It becomes imperative that young generations of students in secondary schools as future leaders of the nation should, as a matter of urgency, be given a through political education with the aim of awakening in them a spirit of political consciousness that will lead to a high sense of loyalty, patriotism, and commitment to the nation’s goals Herry (2013).

Hence, the study of government in secondary schools can be a useful vehicle for fostering political consciousness if only our political leaders, policymakers, and educational agencies can formulate a curriculum that will help in molding the youths to cultivate a positive attitude and an understanding of the Nigeria Political system. The emergence of politically conscious youths in Nigeria will make for the wise use of their political rights by the citizenry by voting into power, leaders that will be politically and economically vibrant. In line with the above, it is imperative that the youths in secondary schools as leaders of tomorrow should understand the rudiment of our political systems to give them insight into how these different political systems operate. Therefore, no effort should be spared in teaching the future leaders in such a way that will make them more interested in the study of government, which is the only way to know the rules of the game of politics Ifeanyi (2010).

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become key tools and had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live. Today, the place of ICTs in education and the world, in general, cannot be undermined. Modern-day businesses are conducted and facilitated through the use of telephones, fax machines, and computer communication networks through the internet. This phenomenon has given birth to contemporary e-commerce, e-government, e-medicine, e-banking, and education among others.

According to Bandele (2006), ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, the internet, and other telecommunication technology in every aspect of human endeavor. The author posited that ICT is simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as the superhighway through which formation is transmitted and shared by people all over the world. Ozoji in Jimoh (2007) defined ICT as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instruction, etc) for use, by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephone. Ofodu (2007) also refer to ICT as electronic or computerized devices, assisted by human and interactive materials that can be used for a wide range of teaching and learning as well as for personal use. From these definitions, ICT could therefore be defined as processing and sharing of information using all kinds of electronic devices, an umbrella that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and in particular developed countries; ICT has made a very profound and remarkable impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning research in the educational institutions.

Information and communication technology has the potentials to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skill; to motivate and engage students in learning to help relate school experiences to work practices; to help create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school; to strengthen teaching and to provide opportunities for connection between the school and the world. Aribisala (2006) posited that ICTs are increasingly playing an important role in organizations and in society’s ability to produce access, adopt, and apply information. They are however being heralded as the tools for the post-industrial age and the foundations for a knowledge economy due to their ability to facilitate the transfer and acquisition of knowledge. Stressing the importance of the use of ICT in schools, Olurunsola (2007) posited that through ICT, educational needs have been met; it changes the needs of education as well as the potential processes. Message can be communicated through e-mail, telex or telephones particularly the mobile ones. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid teleological, social, political, and economic transformation, which has eventuated in a network society organized around ICT (Yusuf, 2015). The author posited that ICT is an indispensable part of educational administration as its application makes institutions more efficient and productive, thereby engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilitate teachers’ pedagogical activities. For instance, e-learning is becoming one of the most common means of using ICT to provide education to students both on and off-campus by means of teaching online offered via web-based systems.

Statement of the Problem

The information technology revolution especially in the area of internet and computer technology has heralded the development and implementation of new and innovative curriculum delivery strategies in the education sector. Oye, (2012) emphasized that the growth in internet technology and its application in education have brought great transformation which has made teaching and learning less burdensome, effective, and result-oriented by providing an avenue for sharing ideas and information. Well researched and packaged teaching materials can be prepared by teachers and delivered to students using e-learning devices such as PowerPoint presentations, video tutorials, e-books, computer-based training, and web-based training (Selwyn, 2011).            

The teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter is the problem, Unavailability of qualified ICTs teachers are part of the problem; Lack of ICTs and their accessories constitute the problems, Lack of teaching aids and computer textbooks militate against effective teaching-learning. Among the militating factors hindering the effect of ICT on students' academic performance, are a lot of capital investment to buy hardware, software’s and standby generators for the school. Lack of search skills, automation at infancy level, epileptic power supply, and technical know-how are some of the problems encountered by the teachers in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area, and to find out; what the possible solutions to the challenges will be like. 

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:

     i.        determine the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.

    ii.        ascertain the perception of teachers and students in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.

  iii.         identify the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide this study:

     i.        What are the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?

    ii.        What is the perception of teachers and students in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?

  iii.         What are the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?

Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will benefit various educational stakeholders. They include teachers, curriculum planners, stakeholders, students.

It would be useful to students in determining the many opportunities the ICT technology provides in their academic lives.

Teachers would be guided on how integrating ICT technology will create a richer environment for teaching and learning. The mobile phone companies would be more informed and therefore invest in providing mobile phone technologies to schools with internet connectivity and smartphones at a reduced price. 

        Curriculum planners and policymakers would be aware of the numerous possibilities of using mobile phone technologies in learning, so as to assist in implementing and designing activities to support the various learning styles.

The findings of this study would also complement other studies and provide appropriate information for content developers and mobile learning developers in designing mobile phone applications for learning. This research would contribute to the body of educational research in that it explores student’s academic performance with multiple indicators of learning, which is satisfaction, learning style, and performance.

The research may provide literature for educational researchers so as to add more information on innovative uses of mobile phone technologies to enhance the educational experiences of students.

Scope of the Study

This study covers the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Geographically, the study will cover all the government secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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