PERCEPTION OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GOVERNMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Background of the Study
ICT is an acronym that stands forinformation communication technology. However, apart from explaining an acronym, there is not a universally accepted definition of ICT; this is because the concepts, methods, and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis. It is difficult to keep up with the changes- they happen so fast (Wikipedia ICT_Education) James (2010). A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals, businesses, and organizations use information. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form. Such as personal computers, digital television, email, robots. So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission, or receipt of digital data Henry (2011).
Government as an academic subject of study in secondary school education is synonymous with politics, political, and civic education. Politics as a concept has a strong influence on the well-being of the citizen and the stability of a country. In Nigeria, a pervasive atmosphere of inconsistency ingovernment policiesand the absence of a political culture tends to prevail most of the time. This atmosphere of uncertainty has led to constant friction within the political system and this in essence led to political instability, a situation that does not create room for meaningful development. It becomes imperative that young generations of students in secondary schools as future leaders of the nation should, as a matter of urgency, be given a through political education with the aim of awakening in them a spirit of political consciousness that will lead to a high sense of loyalty, patriotism, and commitment to the nation’s goals Herry (2013).
Hence, the study of government in secondary schools can be a useful vehicle for fostering political consciousness if only our political leaders, policymakers, and educational agencies can formulate a curriculum that will help in molding the youths to cultivate a positive attitude and an understanding of the Nigeria Political system. The emergence of politically conscious youths in Nigeria will make for the wise use of their political rights by the citizenry by voting into power, leaders that will be politically and economically vibrant. In line with the above, it is imperative that the youths in secondary schools as leaders of tomorrow should understand the rudiment of our political systems to give them insight into how these different political systems operate. Therefore, no effort should be spared in teaching the future leaders in such a way that will make them more interested in the study of government, which is the only way to know the rules of the game of politics Ifeanyi (2010).
Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become key tools and had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live. Today, the place of ICTs in education and the world, in general, cannot be undermined. Modern-day businesses are conducted and facilitated through the use of telephones, fax machines, and computer communication networks through the internet. This phenomenon has given birth to contemporary e-commerce, e-government, e-medicine, e-banking, and education among others.
According to Bandele (2006), ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, the internet, and other telecommunication technology in every aspect of human endeavor. The author posited that ICT is simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as the superhighway through which formation is transmitted and shared by people all over the world. Ozoji in Jimoh (2007) defined ICT as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instruction, etc) for use, by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephone. Ofodu (2007) also refer to ICT as electronic or computerized devices, assisted by human and interactive materials that can be used for a wide range of teaching and learning as well as for personal use. From these definitions, ICT could therefore be defined as processing and sharing of information using all kinds of electronic devices, an umbrella that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. The field of education has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and in particular developed countries; ICT has made a very profound and remarkable impact on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning research in the educational institutions.
Information and communication technology has the potentials to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skill; to motivate and engage students in learning to help relate school experiences to work practices; to help create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, contribute to radical changes in school; to strengthen teaching and to provide opportunities for connection between the school and the world. Aribisala (2006) posited that ICTs are increasingly playing an important role in organizations and in society’s ability to produce access, adopt, and apply information. They are however being heralded as the tools for the post-industrial age and the foundations for a knowledge economy due to their ability to facilitate the transfer and acquisition of knowledge. Stressing the importance of the use of ICT in schools, Olurunsola (2007) posited that through ICT, educational needs have been met; it changes the needs of education as well as the potential processes. Message can be communicated through e-mail, telex or telephones particularly the mobile ones. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid teleological, social, political, and economic transformation, which has eventuated in a network society organized around ICT (Yusuf, 2015). The author posited that ICT is an indispensable part of educational administration as its application makes institutions more efficient and productive, thereby engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilitate teachers’ pedagogical activities. For instance, e-learning is becoming one of the most common means of using ICT to provide education to students both on and off-campus by means of teaching online offered via web-based systems.
Statement of the Problem
The information technology revolution especially in the area of internet and computer technology has heralded the development and implementation of new and innovative curriculum delivery strategies in the education sector. Oye, (2012) emphasized that the growth in internet technology and its application in education have brought great transformation which has made teaching and learning less burdensome, effective, and result-oriented by providing an avenue for sharing ideas and information. Well researched and packaged teaching materials can be prepared by teachers and delivered to students using e-learning devices such as PowerPoint presentations, video tutorials, e-books, computer-based training, and web-based training (Selwyn, 2011).
The teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter is the problem, Unavailability of qualified ICTs teachers are part of the problem; Lack of ICTs and their accessories constitute the problems, Lack of teaching aids and computer textbooks militate against effective teaching-learning. Among the militating factors hindering the effect of ICT on students' academic performance, are a lot of capital investment to buy hardware, software’s and standby generators for the school. Lack of search skills, automation at infancy level, epileptic power supply, and technical know-how are some of the problems encountered by the teachers in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area, and to find out; what the possible solutions to the challenges will be like.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:
i. determine the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
ii. ascertain the perception of teachers and students in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
iii. identify the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
i. What are the availability of ICT facilities for teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?
ii. What is the perception of teachers and students in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?
iii. What are the challenges facing the use of ICT in teaching and learning of government in a secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area?
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study will benefit various educational stakeholders. They include teachers, curriculum planners, stakeholders, students.
It would be useful to students in determining the many opportunities the ICT technology provides in their academic lives.
Teachers would be guided on how integrating ICT technology will create a richer environment for teaching and learning. The mobile phone companies would be more informed and therefore invest in providing mobile phone technologies to schools with internet connectivity and smartphones at a reduced price.
Curriculum planners and policymakers would be aware of the numerous possibilities of using mobile phone technologies in learning, so as to assist in implementing and designing activities to support the various learning styles.
The findings of this study would also complement other studies and provide appropriate information for content developers and mobile learning developers in designing mobile phone applications for learning. This research would contribute to the body of educational research in that it explores student’s academic performance with multiple indicators of learning, which is satisfaction, learning style, and performance.
The research may provide literature for educational researchers so as to add more information on innovative uses of mobile phone technologies to enhance the educational experiences of students.
Scope of the Study
This study covers the perception of teachers and students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of government in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Geographically, the study will cover all the government secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area..