Chapter One

Background of the Study


Man as a gregarious being moves closer to his fellow men to share knowledge, live together in groups, share ideas and opinions in their various groups as well as recreate themselves, also entertain themselves in a group after hard day’s work, these activities are needed to relieve him of worries, fatigue, tension, physical and physiological needs. An eighty seven years old physical educator who still played badminton claimed that recreation has been very useful as a secret of his good health despite the old age (Onifade, 2012).

Recreation is a deviation from ones normal activities to relax, it is an activity voluntary engage in during leisure and motivated by the personal satisfaction derived from participation (Onifade, 2012). There is fairly consistent evidence that suggests that adolescents are becoming more obese and more sedentary because of their lack of participation in recreational activities.

In his own definition, Bucher (2003) defined recreation as socially acceptable worthwhile activities in which a person voluntarily participates during leisure hours and through which he or she has opportunities to develop physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. The benefits of participating in recreational activities are numerous and well documented in the literature. Dubbert (2002) highlighted that recreational participation reduces obesity, maintains healthy joints, controls pain, builds stronger bone mass as well as improve endurance, strength and balance.

Furthermore, recreational participation improves the functioning of the heart and the ability of the cardio respiratory system to carry oxygen to blood vessels and also improves metabolism - the process by which food is converted to energy and tissue is built (Insel and Roth, 2006). According to Insel and Roth (2006), being physically fit makes it easier to do everyday tasks. Regular participation  in recreational participation provides reserve strength for emergencies and helps people to look and feel good. In the long term, physically fit individuals are less likely to develop heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and many other degenerative diseases (Insel and Roth, 2006). Lopez, Gallegos and Extremera (2010) posit that regular participation in recreational activities provides increased physical, psychological and physiological benefits.

Regular exercise is also associated with an improved sense of well-being and mental health (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). It positively affects young people’s social development and prosocial behaviour. Research has shown that regular exercise increases energy levels, improves emotional and psychological well-being, and boosts the immune system (Insel and Roth, 2006). According to Talbot (2001), recreational participation helps one to develop respect for one’s body as well as that of others. This contributes to an integrated development of mind and body as well as an understanding of the important role that recreational participation plays in one’s life. O’Dea (2003) reported that the social benefits associated with participation in recreational activities include fun and enjoyment, interacting with others and developing life skills.

        Exercise improves muscle strength, academic performance, releases tension and improves their appearance and self-esteem (O’Dea, 2003). Exercise also helps students to cope with stress, improves their sense of relaxation, and reduces aggression, frustration and anger (Dhurup, 2012). Hassmen, Koivula and Uutela (2000) found that active participation in recreational activities results in lower depression, anger, cynical distrust, and stress. The authors further indicated that regular exercisers enjoy healthier lives and general well-being as well as higher levels of physical fitness and a stronger feeling of social integration as well as higher levels of coherence than those who do not exercise. Another study by Stubbe, De Moor, Boomstra and De Geus (2007) reported that exercisers are more satisfied with their lives and are happier than non-exercisers. However, despite the benefits of recreational participation, many people still choose not to exercise, usually citing peer group influence ( Asagba, 2003), parental influence (Adisa, 2009), availability of sports equipments and facilities, personal conviction (Groos, 2009), motivations and demographic factors (Agha and Olumba, 2009) as some of the factors influencing recreational participation in Nigeria Secondary Schools.

Statement of the Problem

There are many factors that influence students’  participation in recreational activities in Ezza South L.G.A. These problems are inadequate recreational facilities in the secondary schools in the Local Government Area, seeming inflince of knowledge on the importance of recreational participation. Also, recreation is not part of their culture since even their parents are too busy to even think of recreational activities, let alone participating in it, others are too shy to come out and play some recreational games. The school curriculum seems not to encourage students’ participation in recreational activities because only little time is given to recreational activities.  The teachers who are key determinants of recreational participation are also not helping matters because they hardly engage in recreational activities. All these may have influenced students’ participation in recreational activities in Ezza South Local Government Area, Ebonyi State.

Therefore, the need to investigate the influence of students’ recreational activities among senior secondary students (SSS) in Ezza South L.G.A of Ebonyi State

Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of recreational activities among Senior Secondary Students (SSS) in Ezza South L.G.A of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study seeks to:

1.    Ascertain the factors that contribute to influence of recreational activities among SSS of Ezza South L.G.A of Ebonyi State

2.    Ascertain whether peer pressure of secondary school students contributes to influence  of recreational activities  among SSS of Ezza South L.G.A of Ebonyi State

Significance of the Study

This study will be very important to many people such as young people, parents and schools as it will add to the existing body of knowledge of the aforementioned parties.

The students will immensely benefit from this work because it will act as secondary data to future researchers.

Through this work, parents could change their attitudes towards their children participation in recreational activities because they would have understood the importance of recreational activities to human’s health after going through the study’s findings.

The ministry of education and youth development will benefit from the findings of this study because it would be a guide to the ministry in developing students’ friendly recreational activities both at primary and secondary school levels.

The study will also help the Nigerian education system succeed in helping the students understand the implications of their sedentary life upon their social and mental well being at the personal level.

Importantly, this research will expose the researcher to greater understanding of the benefits of participation in recreational activities; and count towards his earning a BSc. degree in Human Kinetics and developing a career in the discipline. This study will also contribute to literature on recreational activities, and serve as reference material for future researchers.

Scope of the Study

This study was restricted to Ezza South Local Government Area and to two secondary schools out of the 10 secondary schools chosen for the study. This decision ensured homogeneity in social demands amongst the sample.

The population for the study was limited to only senior secondary school students while 330 students were selected as the sample of the study.

The study adopted descriptive survey research design. Data collection was restricted to only self structured questionnaire while the methods of data analysis were simple percentage, frequency and chi-square (x2).

Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study:

1.   What are the factors that contribute to influence of recreational activities among SSS of Ezza South L.G.A of Ebonyi State?

2.   Does peer pressure of secondary school students have any influence on recreational activities?


The followings research hypotheses guided the study

1.   Availability of equipments and facilities have no influence on recreational activities among secondary school students

2.  There is no significant influence of peer pressure on influence of recreational activities among secondary school students


Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing