Background to the Study

Education is largely a matter of a learning process that involves interaction between teacher and learner. When this process works well, real learning takes places. In the past,academic performancewas often measure more by ear than today. In most developing countries especially Nigeria, there is a widespread desire to change the educational system to meet the new social and technological needs. In a country like Nigeria, dropout tendencies and teachers’ motivation have posed a lot of repercussions for the educational sector. Significantly, motivation is very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. According to Sergiovanni (2014), teachers are motivated when they are able to share a common body of knowledge. This can only happen when teachers have forums for discussions and training and development programmes.

The world “motivation” according to Longman Dictionary is derived from motive, which is an eagerness and willingness to do something without needing to be told or force to it. Similarly, the roles and contexts of educations’ motivational methods and tools cannot be underemphasized because high motivation enhances productivity which is naturally in the interests of all educational systems (Ololube 2010, 2011).

According to Paul Bennell (2012), ‘’Over one-third of all the teachers at the survey primary schools in five of the six extended case study countries indicated that teachers at their school are ‘poorly’ or ‘very poorly’ motivated. Motivation levels appear to be chronically low in Nigeria. Teachers are expected to render a very high job performance, and the Ministry of Education is always curious regarding thejob performanceof its teachers. Also, the Ministry of Education demands a very high measure of loyalty, patriotism, dedication, hard work and commitment from its teachers (Ubom & Joshua, 2013).

Earlier research done on the subject matter by researchers in Pakistan, Nigeria, and the whole Sub-Saharan Africa as well notable case studies carried in Ghana on Education Management Information Systems, Induction for Teacher Retention, Motivation and Incentives for teachers and Teachers Job Satisfaction and Motivation for school effectiveness have yielded results to support the idea of motivation of teachers if there is to improvements in the performance of the schools.

Therefore, the value of teachers in preparing human beings for a useful living very high and as contained in the national policy on education (2010) that teacher help to “equip“ students to live effectively in modern age of science and technology. This has made the growing complexity in terms of environmental expulsion, resource mobilization and organization of education institutional the increasing societal demand the more result, oriented schools have made the duties of the staff in the schools to be more critical in organization behaviour, there is therefore a corresponding need for more pragmatic motivational design that will enhance the job performance of teachers in the schools.

Teacher motivation in developed countries is due to the fact that teachers are provided with good quality teacher training and development hence they have opportunities to further improve their training (Evans 2014). They work in acceptable physical school contexts. These countries are such as, the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Canada and Australia. They remain motivated when they see their learners achieve academically as they expect incentives. A decade ago, one observer noted that performance incentives in schools were virtually untested‖ (Hanushek, 2016) Since then, a multitude of accountability programs have been implemented that mete out rewards or sanctions to schools and teachers based on some function of school test scores, especially under the guise of the U.S‘s. No Child Left Behind Act.

There is mounting concern that rigid compensation structures weaken teachers‘ incentives hence the need to exert effort and improve student performance. In the United States and elsewhere, such concerns have catalyzed the use of monetary performance incentives, often based upon the level or growth of students‘ test-score performance. Nonetheless, pay-for-performance is relatively rare and existing plans are often small-scale and short-lived. In contrast, Nigeria school teachers have been eligible for large financial awards since 1993 that are based upon student test scores, among other factors.

Statement of the Problem

The ineffectiveness of teachers has really been matters of general concern in our society as the school system have been adversely affected. This is chiefly attributed to lack of motivation and incentive to teachers. It therefore contributes immensely as a serious setback in the academic performance of Economics students in secondary school particularly in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra state.

Teachers in Dunukofia L.G.A seem to experience irregular payment of salaries and allowances which hinder their dedication to duties. Poor salaries also  affect their performance in the classroom as their promotions are not implemented which reduces their morale in teaching. The environment under which teachers teach or work is not conducive hence reducing their interest in their job as well as their output in teaching. It is this situation that has prompted the researcher to conduct a study to establish the various motivational strategies and how they influence students’ academic performance in economics in Dunukofia Government secondary schools in Anambra State.

Purpose of thStudy

This study sets out to investigate the influence of teachers' motivation on the academic performance of Economics students in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. In order to accomplish this purpose, the researcher sets out the following objectives.

1. To determine how irregular payment of teacher's salaries and allowances hinder their dedication to duties.

2. To find out whether non-implementation of teachers' promotions as they usually complain, affect their morale in teaching.

3. To determine how poor salaries received by teachers affect their performance in the classroom.

4. To find out whether the environment at which teachers work reduce their interest and output in teaching

Significance of the study

The study is of a great importance to various units in the system. The knowledge of the influence of teachers' motivation on the academic performance of Economics students in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State would be of immense value to the school management, parents, government and all those who are interested in the educational progress of Economics student in particular and other students in general in various secondary schools.

However, the knowledge derived from this study would show that, if teachers are adequately motivated with good condition of service, they can improve considerably interms of their level of performance and their output might increase greatly. The implication of such improvement in performance level and increase in output is that Economics students have greater chances of achieving greater height in their academics and the best would be brought out of the students.

Furthermore, the findings of this research work, if the recommendations are strictly followed will help to change the attitudes of teachers to their work especially those of Economics and its related subjects.

Finally, this work would also reveal the areas of motivational factors that need to be improved for optimum performance of teachers.

Scope of thStudy

The research is carried out in 10 Government Secondary Schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State.  This research work aimed at investigating the influence of motivation to the teachers on the academic performance of Economics students in Dunukofia L.G.A of Anambra state.

Research Questions

1.     Does irregular payment of teachers' salaries and allowances hinder their dedication to duties?

2.     Does non-implementation of teachers' promotions affect their morale in teaching?

3.     Does poor salary reduce the performance of teachers in the classroom?

4.     Does working environment under which teachers work affect their interest in their job as well as reduce their output.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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