INFLUENCE OF NIGERIAN HOME VIDEO FILMS ON THE MORAL BEHAVIOUR ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page………………..iCertification……………iiDedication………………iiiAcknowledgment……….ivTable of content………v
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background to the Study1.2 Statement of the Problem1.3 Objectives of the Study1.4 Research Questions 1.5 Research Hypothesis 1.6 Significance of the Study 1.7 Delimitation of the Study1.8 Limitation of the Study1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 Review of Concepts 2.1.1 Historical Perspective of Nigerian Movie Industry 18.104.22.168 The Colonial Era (Late 19th Century- early 1960s)22.214.171.124 Golden Age (Late 1950s – Late 1980s)126.96.36.199 Home Videos Boom (Late 1950s – Mid 2010s)188.8.131.52 New Nigerian Cinema (Mid 2000s - present)2.1.2 Responsibilities and Functions of Nigerian Home Video Films 2.1.3 Nigerian Home Video Films and Violence on Secondary School Students 2.1.4 Challenges of Nigerian Home Video Films on Secondary School Students 2.1.5 Theories on Nigerian Home Video Films and Violence 2.1.6 Home Video Films and Moral Behaviour of Teens 2.2 Review Opinions 2.3 Review of Study2.3.1 Buckley and Anderson, (2006) 2.3.2 Philip Scott (2016)2.3.3 Bushman and Huesmann (2006) 2.4 Theoretical Framework 2.4.1 Social Learning Theory 184.108.40.206 Attention 220.127.116.11 Retention 18.104.22.168 Reproduction 22.214.171.124 Motivation 2.4.2 Cultivational Theory
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Research Technique3.2 Population of the Study 3.3 Sample Size and Sample Procedure3.4 Description of Measuring 3.4 Description of Measuring Instrument 3.5 Validity of the Research Instrument 3.6 Reliability of the Research Instrument 3.7 Method of Data Collection 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOURData Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Finds4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 4.2 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.0 Introduction 5.1 Summary 5.2 Conclusion5.3 Recommendations REFERENCESAPPENDIX IQUESTIONNAIREAPPENDIX II
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.2 Background to the StudyHannah Arent, a great philosopher once said “The essence of all revolution is a skin of a story in human experience.” The new world story is information and such how story is communicated to audience understanding. Years back, Nigerian Cinema, which was once popular for foreign and local films now belongs to another age. Television in this present time has become more popular and it is a more convenient alternative to the social customs of going out to Cinema hall to watch current films and dramas.Nigerian Nollywood industry was established in 1960 with the aim to entertained, educate and inform its viewers on issues and religion not known. The industry was then occupied by the south west filmmakers. Though the industry came up with a slow start but today it has now grown to the world stage.The industry have been competing with the likes of Hollywood and others in the competitive market by selling out Nigeria’s heritage around the world and nurturing more vibrant actors and actresses that features in many foreign films winning both local and international awards. Nigerian home video has affected social change by undoubtedly aiding fashion, taste and social interaction on viewers in general. According to Bow (1980, P. 8) “Communication is the heart of all social intercourse” over the years, these has been considerable debate over the impact of Nigerian home videos on children. Children are the most rapidly changing segment in any society. They are constantly rejecting the ways, norms and values of the older generation and are quick in redefining them to suit their own values and style.Nollywood home videos started as a necessary emulation of foreign films in Nigeria and other African countries and this maintain its integrity including that of other African countries. The fast growing of Nollywood industry in the area of films production have attracted interest of actors and actresses from other African countries like: Van Vicker, Mike Arthur, Nadia Buari, Yvonne Okoro and a last of others. Nigerian home videos is required to maintain a middle of the road positions, it holds a mirror to the society, to reflect what it looks like and never to influence what the society should look like. Those films have been jointly identified along with local television programmes and other television series as accalturing Nigerian youths and children. This is evident in their mode of dressing, speaking, behavioural pattern and the way they relate with their elders. Children are found imitating their heroes on movies they watch on television both foreign and local. One find them imitating the likes of the Olu-Jacob, Peter Edochie, Laz Ekueme etc when they are discussing on the issues of kingship and executing judgement. Others on the other hand would imitate Ramsey Noah, Van Vicker etc on love, romance and emotion. While the bad boys go on to imitate their hero like Sylvester Madu, Jentle Jack and the anticipated bad boy in the industry Hank Anukwu which his best role in a movie is robbery and keeping hostage.The girls also have their syndrome of imitating heroes too, like; Patience Ozokwo,Ini Edo, Genevieve Nnaji, Omota Jalade, and a host of others base on their roles in a movies. Basically, by way of imitating this actors and actresses they have been deeply affected both physically, mentally and emotionally. Youth in the society today especially the girls are at times crazy like to their syndrome of imitating heroes style of dressing. Behavioural patterns and ways of addressing their elder. Most girls on the street are half naked, with the ability of not having respect to their elders ones and some children don’t obey and respect their parent at home, one can notice various behaviours children of this days are living because the of motion pictures they watch on screen. This days school children do watch film after the hours of ten O’clock at night when they should be in bed.This denotes that they might watch movies not meant for them. They watch late night movies and learnt things meant for adult. Children attitude to early sex, joining various cult groups of their choice, going into robbery and other social vices are all in accordance to what they watch and see on television screen. The main aim of introducing Nigerian Nollywood film industry was to make sure information about different cultures in different tribes are well disseminated, it was also made to entertain, educate inform and wish to highlight and preserve African arts and culture through the use of motion pictures (acting). But nowadays the importation of foreign roles and adoption in Nollywood industry has taken about 35 percent Nigerian movie time. The content of some of these imported roles and putting them into full acted film or shows is a threat to Nigerian children. For example, some American spy film Cow-boy films which consist of guns and killings, the Indian films which are mostly love and emotional films and the Chinese films are normally ‘Kun Fu’ consisting of kicking are a lot of violence roles injected into nollywood industry today. People boolying, shooting, kicking and fighting, which helps to increased lawlessness in our society of excess if they are let loose to the viewers to copy.Taking a brief look at the classification of movies in nollywood industry. The films in Nigeria movie industry under the supervision of the NFVCB, the board classifies movie according to age and this is to make it easier for everyone to know what moves is suitable for any age. From 9 – 12 years; 13- 15 years; 16 – 17 years; 18 – 19 years; and 20 and above There are three basic ethnics groups in Nigeria in which Nollywood are attributed to and are dominant in the industry base on their cultural heritage these can also be identified as source which include; the Hausa, Yoruba, and the Ibo. The Hausa heritage films provide viewers with the lifestyle of Northern part of the country like; food, dressing, language, religion etc. On like the Yoruba and the Ibo but different parts which religions, different style and attitudes differs including the Ibibio tribe.We can also consider Nigerian movie genre Christian Drama; Drama crime; Drama adventure; Drama family; Drama village, Comedy city, Comedy village, Romance city and Romance village. The researchers divide the film genre into three different segments suitable for ages.Group 1: In this category, Christian drama and drama family predominate the viewing experience of audiences from age 9-12.Group 2: Predominate: Drama village; Comedy village; and Comedy CityThese drama presentations are suitable for audiences from Age 13-15 Group 3: Drama crime; Drama adventure; Romance city; and Romance village predominate the viewing habit of audiences from age 18 and above. According to Thomas (2016); watching bad movies can lead to drug addiction and other dangerous lifestyles or death. He advised the student to always watch movies classified for their age only.
1.2 Statement of the ProblemCritics have questioned children’s film since 1960s. During the past period the producers had failed to recognized children as a special viewer group. Programming for children is one of the areas of great problem to Nigerian producers. Many people who studied the patterns of Nigerian Nollywood industries on their films production have noted seriously its impact on the lives of the people and have also known the various conflicts on our culture. The concern therefore is: what is the influence of Nollywood home videos film on secondary school students in Akwa Ibom State?
1.3 Objectives of the StudyThe objectives of the study were to;(i) Find out if secondary school students view Nigerian home video films on television.(ii) Find out how frequently secondary school students view Nigerian home video films on television.(iii) Ascertain if Nigerian home video films appeal to the viewing interest of secondary school students.(iv) Find out the moral values that secondary school students imitate from viewing Nigerian home video films.(v) Determine if exposure to Nigerian home video films influence the moral behaviour of secondary school students.
1.4 Research Questions The study sought answers to the following questions: (i) Do secondary school students view Nigerian home video films on television?(ii) How frequently do secondary school students view Nigerian home video films on television? (iii) In what ways, do Nigerian home video films appeal to the viewing interest of secondary school students?(iv) What moral values do secondary school students imitate from viewing Nigerian home video films?(v) Does exposure to Nigerian home video films influence the moral behaviours of secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypothesis HI: Exposure to Nigerian home video films influences the moral behaviour of secondary school students.
1.6 Significance of the Study Obviously, there is need to embark on a research of this nature when one considers the influence of movies on Nigerian youths. Producers of films, television programmes and drama are very careless in the way they handle sex and the intake of alcohol on their movies script before being acted to a full watch movies and dramas on television. In the absent of community standards we show no restrain in the way we present sex in our movies and dramas or any television programme. The child is introduced to the world of romance early in life.Profanity, obscenity, smut and vulgarity are common in both local and foreign film and other entertainment programmes. Cigarette smoking and the use of liquor are often depicted in a manner to impress the youth of our country as a desirable habit worthy of imitation. Therefore, this study is justified because no known researchers has yet been conducted among the resident in Akwa Ibom State to discover the influence of local home videos films on the children whether negative or positive influence. Base on the reactions in Uyo resident to some certain films watch on television screen, recommendations where made in order to prevent this misleading functions built in Nigerian children Uyo specifically and also the need to preserve African culture.
1.7 Delimitation of the StudyThe study concentrates on the influence of local films on secondary school students. The work is limited to secondary school students whose age ranges from 10 – 18 years of age. This range was chosen because by the age of 10 and average child seems to answer a questionnaire and express his opinion correctly. Also by the age of 10, the influence of film and television if any should be manifested in a child. The upper limit of 17 reflects the age of a young person beyond which he is an adult. This study was restricted in scope to two popular secondary schools in Uyo metropolis namely: Four Towns Secondary School and Christian Comprehensive Secondary School. These schools were chosen because of their proximately to the researcher and high rate of indiscipline observed by the researcher.
1.8 Limitation of the StudyIn the course of carrying out this study, many obstacles were encountered by the researcher. This includes, time, influence stress, hard work and difficulties in administering the questionnaire to the respondents. The time allotted for this was limited due to engagement of the researcher as a student. There was also the problem of administering the questionnaires to the respondents as the result of the inability to meet to them in their various schools. However, the researcher was able to overcome these and the study was brought to a logical conclusion.
1.9 Operational Definition of TermsIt is necessary in a researcher work of this nature, to explain certain terms for benefit of those who may not understand what such terms mean. Therefore, some terms used in the work are defined. Network: A television network consist the same of a number of interconnected stations capable of transmitting simultaneously the same programmes originating at one of their stations.Youth: The state of being young which is the early part of life but for the purpose of this work, the limit of this “youth” is from the age 10 – 17 years.Audience/Viewers: This comprises of all those persons that gathered together either in their individual homes or in an open place for the purpose of watching television programmes or films.Scheduling: The time set or period fixed for the showing of television programmes and films on Cinema.Television Screen: An electronic visual medium of mass communication.Local/Foreign Films: Local films are films produced in Nigeria with Nigerian settings, themes and plots with Nigerian actors. Foreign films are films which are dominated by foreign actors and which are geared toward imparting western ideasNollywood Industry: This is where Nigerian films are acted and produced. This industry oversees all the activities of our home videos.NFVCB: National films and video censor board.Nollywood Crew: A group persons that are responsible for a successful production of Nigerian films.Cinema: A hall where people go out in large numbers to watch films, movies or television programmes on a large television screen.Bollywood: This industry is said to be the largest film production industry in the world now, this is base on the number of films produced. The industry produces media films.Hollywood: American films are being overseens by Hollywood through their production and the activities.Nigerian Films: Films that is produced and acted in Nigerian by Nigerian actors.Media: The channel of mass communication. Secondary School Students: Youth that are in secondary school level. Students: Children from the ages of 8 – 18 who are admitted into secondary schools in view of obtaining their SSCE. Home Videos: Movies circulated and acted in Nigeria..